Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding

Formula 2 single bonds between unlike atoms q hf

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Unformatted text preview: e atoms q HF Figure 7.10 2 Some atoms can form bonds with more than one atom q CCl4 Figure 7.10 2 Multiple Bonds q Can share more than one pair of electrons Can to form double or triple bonds to 2 electron pairs 3 electron pairs electron 2 Comparison of Bonds q Bond Energy (bond strength): single bond < double bond < triple bond q Bond Length (distance between atom centers): single bond > double bond > triple bond q N―N q 1.47 A N=N 1.24 A N≡N 1.10 A 2 Valence Electrons and Number of Bonds q How is the number of bonds formed by a How given atom related to its number of valence electrons? valence q H-C ≡ C-H H-C q H2C= CH2 q H3C−CH3 q CH4 2 Valence Electrons and Number of Bonds q Draw the structure of a molecule that Draw contains 1 C, 1 O and 2 H: CH2O contains 2 8.4 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity q Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds q Polar Bonds – Electrons are not shared Polar not equally equally q Nonpolar Bonds – Electrons are shared Nonpolar equally equally 2 Polarity of Covalent Bonds q Unequal sharing of electrons in a Unequal bond leads to the development of partial charges separated from one another - this phenomenon is called polarity. polarity q The greater the charge separation, The the more polar the bond. Very polar bonds have relative ionic and covalent character of the bond. covalent 3 Bonds: Ionic, Polar Covalent, Non-Polar Covalent q Bonds can be found with a range of Bonds polarities polarities - from completely ionic from - to completely covalent to 3 Electronegativity q Pauling found that HF has a stronger bond Pauling than the average of the H2 and F2 bonds; he than attributed this extra strength to partial ionic character. q From the bond strengths, he assigned values From of electronegativity - the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a bond to itself. attract 3 Electronegativity 3 Trends in Electronegativity q Which Which combinations of elements are more likely to form ionic bonds? ionic q ... covalent bonds? bonds? 3...
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