CHAPTER 10 - Intro to Baroque Music • Architecture and Music o Places and churches of great size o Filled with decoration o Musical decoration above a solid support • Characteristics of Music o Melody Renaissance bad equal voice imitation Baroque emphasizes top and bottom Importance of accompanied solo song • Monody – Greek for “to sing alone” o Basso Continuo Bass-driven cordial support played by one or more instruments Organized homophonically and vertically, chord by chord. Figured bass- harpsichordist play numerical shorthand placed below the bass line. • ELEMENTS!!!~ o Melody – long, luxuriant vocal lines o Harmony – Chord progressions o Rhythm – Uniform rhythms o Texture – predominantly homophonic textures o Dynamics – sudden contrasts in dynamics. Terraced dynamics – The practice of shifting the volume of sounds suddenly from one level to another. CHAPTER 11 – Early Baroque • Opera o Union of music, drama, scenery, costumes, and often dance o Text is called libretto or “little book” 1) Sung mainly by soloists 2) Major roles go to the best singers 3) High cost, because the singers are the highest paid of all classical musicians. o Monody- expressive solo singing to simple accompaniment o Recitative – from Italian recitative, or “something recited.” Heightened speech through which the plot of the opera is communicated to the opera. CHAPTER 12 - Middle Baroque • Instrumental Music o Growth of instrumental music spurred by violin o Distinctively sounding Idiomatic writing – exploits the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of particular voices and instruments. • Orchestra
o For western classical music, then, can be said to be an ensemble of musicians, organized around a core of strings, with added woodwinds and brasses, playing under the leader. • Concerto o Musical composition marked by a friendly competition between a soloist and an orchestra. Solo concerto – one soloist Concerto grosso – when a small group of soloists work together, performing as a unit against the full orchestra. • Concertino – little concerto • Tutti – all or everybody • ANTONIO VIVALDI “Opus 8” o First of Opus 8 was “The seasons”…Birds, storm, ritornello, brook, after the storm o Ritornello – return or refrain o Melodic sequence – repetition of a musical motive at successively higher or lower degrees of the scale. CHAPTER 13 - Late Baroque Bach • Refinement rather than innovation o As pects of late Baroque style Re-introduction to polyphony texture • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 – 1750) o Fugue Subject – The theme of the fugue Exposition – a successive presentation where, at the outset, each voice presents the subject in turn Episodes- freer sections, where the subject is not heard in its entirety • Episodes and further presentations of the subject alternate throughout the remainder of the fugue Fugue – A composition of two, three, four, or five parts played or
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- Spring '08
- Music, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony, Baroque music, • Orchestra