6/23 Lecture ●What do we use perception for? ○Interpret the world around us ■Support successful behavior ●Determine what is a threat, food, or Dave ■Connect with our environment, each other, and ourselves ■Hopefully, a truthful representation of reality ●How do we study perception? ○How do we perceive? ○What do we perceive? ■What IS perceived? ○Why do we perceive? ○Psychology, neuroscience, physics, philosophy, evolution, ecology ●How can we apply perception research ○Improve robotics and AI ■Speech recognition ■Face recognition ■Annotations ■Tactile keyboards ■An iPad that can read handwriting ○Medical aid ■Hearing aids ■“Smart” limbs ■Colorblind correction lenses ○Improved safety ■By knowing how we see, we can adapt environments ●Like roads and highways ○Musical highway ○neon/reflective strips ○Curves ○Marketing ■Age-appropriate shelving for products ■Development related perception marketing — big eyed dolls ●What is perception? ○Different historical researchers argue on this ○For our class, perception is the interpretation of sensory information ○How is this different from sensation? ○What role might memory or attention play? ●Sensation: what are our senses? ○Myth: we only have 5 senses ■Touch, taste, sight, hearing, smell ○Truth
■Sight, touch, pain, taste, smell, hearing, appetite, pressure, sense of force/acceleration, balance, emotion, familiarity, faces, temperature, sense of dread/intuition/premonition/shadows, body regulation/physiological self-awareness, sense of self, sense of attraction, sense of time, consciousness, humor ●How do we sense? ○Woman looking at a red apple ○Apple reflects light, gives off chemicals (smell of its sweetness), vibrations of light energy ■Light travels into our face → stimuli signal transduced into neural code ●History of Perception ○Ancient Greeks ■Pythagoras ●Emanation hypothesis ○Eyes send out beams of light and bounce off of objects and come back to the eye ■Democritus ●Eidola hypothesis ○Light hits the object → light comes to eye ○Idea of simulation ■Aristotle ●Illusions ○Aristotle Illusion — touch discrimination ○Waterfall illusion — motion aftereffects ○Motion aftereffect ■Greek Architects ●Curved pillars seem straight from far away ○René Descartes ■Mind-body dualism ●The mind is a puppeteer ●The body influences the mind ■Doctrine of corporeal ideas ●We are aware only of body states ■Understanding of eyesight ●Lens focus ○Took an ox eye’s lens ○Distal — far away ■Visual angle narrower ○Proximal — closeby ■Visual angle wider ●Image inversion ○John Locke ■Tabula Rasa ●Nurture, not nature
●Perception shaped by experience ■What supports this? ●Depth perception ●Haptic feedback ○We learn by experience ○Touch-learn-feel ■What counters this?