Chapter%207%20-%20Imagery - Chapter 7 Imagery Memory and imagery Paivos dual-coding theory Images are a subjective phenomenon Image defined as the ease

Chapter%207%20-%20Imagery - Chapter 7 Imagery Memory and...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages.

Chapter 7 Imagery Memory and imagery Paivo’s dual-coding theory Images are a subjective phenomenon Image defined as the ease with which something elicits a mental image (mental picture or sound) Dual-coding theory : The theory that verbal and non-verbal systems are alternative ways of representing events. E.g. an event can be described with words (verbal) or it can be imagined (non-verbal). 1 . Incoming info can be either verbal or non-verbal, 2. It is picked up by the sensory systems, 3. Then info is represented by verbal or non-verbal system. Logogens : The units containing the information underlying our use of a word that comprise the verbal system. operate sequentially Imagens : The units containing information that generate mental images that make up the non-verbal system natural objects, holistic parts of objects, natural groupings of objects operate synchronously Information in one system can give rise to info in the other system. They are interconnected: a verbal description of something can elicit a mental image and vice-versa. Words that elicit images tend to be concrete (table). Words that do not elicit images tend to be abstract (justice). Concreteness : The degree to which a word refers to concrete objects/persons/places/things that can be heard, felt, touched, tasted. Refers to something that can be experienced by the senses. Measurement of imagery and concreteness: give participants definitions of imagery and concreteness. Ask them to rate the two concepts (low or high). They are usually correlated. Paivo thinks that imagery and concreteness measure 2 aspects of the same process. Our experience of concrete events is necessarily saturated with images. Some concepts can be caused by concrete things but are not themselves concrete (pain, love). Often refer to emotions. Research related to dual-coding theory Paivo (1965): role of imagery in learning. Paired associate learning task Participants asked to memorize pairs of words, then given the 1 st word and asked to write down the second Four groups of participants learned 16 pairs of words Results: clear differences between the groups. 1. concrete/concrete: learning is best 2. concrete/abstract 3.Abstract/concrete 4. abstract/abstract: learning is worse Then asked to rate imageability of each word Results: concrete words higher in imagery than abstract words. Concrete word coded by either verbal or non-verbal system, abstract word coded only by verbal system (tends to not elicit and image). Easy to recall a concrete word because it is present in both systems. Dual-coding theory applied to ++ phenomena (figurative language and metaphor) and also used to understand literacy. Dual-coding theory and the brain
Image of page 1
Left hemisphere : controls speech and is better at processing verbal material Right hemisphere : better at performing non-verbal tasks Hypothesis that LH dominant at verbal representation and RH is dominant at imagery challenged by fMRI.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 5 pages?

  • Spring '09
  • SHAHINZANGENEHPOUR
  • Mental image, Dual-coding theory

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture