cognition%20readings%20notes - Cognition Ch.1 Introduction What is Cognition Cognition has no precise definition o action and faculty of knowing its

cognition%20readings%20notes - Cognition Ch.1 Introduction...

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CognitionCh.1- IntroductionWhat is CognitionCognition has no precise definitionoactionand faculty of knowing it’s about the processes+ the different divisions of our mind Folk psychology= a set of assumptions and theories based on everyday behaviours of ourselves and othersCognitive conceptsoAwareness- consciousness oIntelligence- quickness of understanding/ info/ sagacity oIntuition- immediate insightoPersonal acquaintance- social knowledgeoRecognition- categorizing what we’ve seen/ reviewing and revisingoSkill- reasoning/ practice knowledge/ expertiseoUnderstanding- judgment, decision-making/ comprehensionCognitive psychology and information-processing theoryEveryday we are thinking and processing info: attending/ comprehending/ remembering / problem-solvingInfo-processing theory derived from basic coms theory (Shannon & Weaver)osender: encodes a messageocommunication channel: delivers the messageoreceiver: decodes (translates) the messageinfo from a message is not solely determined by the signal itself but also the whole array of possible messages Information theory= information reduces uncertainty in the mind of the receiver othe amount of info provided in a message is proportional + inversely related to he probability of that message occurringthe less likely a signal is, the more information it conveysbit= “binary digit”/ an even that occurs in a situation with 2 equally likely outcomes provides one ‘bit’ of infoothe number of bits go up when the number of alternatives to the events doublesoex. in a game where one has to guess one’s number between 1-8, you only need 3 questions to answer itEarly tests of info theory(Merkel) people respond more slowly to less likely signals i.e. response time increases when number of alternatives increase (slower to answer)(Hick) “information is intimately concerned with response time” (RT)(Hyman) study showing also that: oRT to frequent (infrequent) signals was reduced (longer)
oRT was faster as the signal’s probability increases oShows that RT is not determined just by signal but by the complexity of the situation tooInformation-processing limitations 1) the amount of time it takes info to be processed in the nervous system2) the amount of visual info that a person can transmit has limits3) NS has a capacity limitation too for the amount of into that it can take in at one given timeoex. the more info a visual signal conveys, the longer the RT o(Webster and Thompson) Study on auditory messagespilot-to-tower communication results: control tower operators can identify 2 different call signals but process 1 of 2 simultaneous word message= dichotic listening difficulty in dealing with 2 stimuli at once shows how we’re limited in the amount of info we take inowhen info-processing capacity is loaded, studies show we select only some of the total info (usually messages with similar properties)

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