#2 IS Midterm Study Guide

#2 IS Midterm Study Guide - Chapter 7 IS Review Armed...

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Chapter 7 IS Review Armed Conflicts Trends: -The amount of wars between countries has decreased in recent years -No wars between great powers have been waged since World War 2. -Most wars take place in Global South. Highest number of states, biggest population, Least Income, and least stable government. Asymmetric War-An armed conflict between belligerents of vastly unequal military strength, in which the weaker side is often a nonstate actor that relies on unconventional tactics. Causes of War: 1) Aggressive traits found in the human species 2) Pernicious national attributes that beget conflict=prone states 3) unstable structures and volatile processes within the international community. Levels of Analysis: First Level of Analysis: Human Nature -Freud believes that aggression is an instinctive part of human nature -However, scholars now believe that, “capacity, but not need, for violence appears to be biologically entrenched in humans.” Second Level of Analysis: Internal Characteristics of States -Geographic Location: Natural resources, transportation routes, strategic borders. Territorial issues can be though of as remote, underlying causes of war. -Cultural Values: Nationalism has long been known as a cause of war. Some governments promote political cultures that encourage citizens to accept whatever their leaders declare necessary for national security, including using military force to resolve international disagreements. -Civil Strife: One major cause of Civil war is relative deprivation, which is when people perceive they are unfairly deprived of the wealth, status, or opportunities that they deserve in comparison with advantaged others, their frustration and anger often explode into violence. -Economic Conditions: Because of the widening economic connections in the Global North, and bilateral trade, it is less likely for wealthy countries to go to war. However, most poor countries don’t have the means to instigate aggression. So, developing countries are the most likely to go to war, because of their recent economic success. -Political Institutions: Democracies rarely wage war against other Democracies. Third Level of Analysis: System Structure and Processes - Imbalance of power is a major cause of war. - Power Transition Theory: the theory that war is likely when dominant power is threatened by a rapid growth of a rivals’ capabilities. - Challenger more frequently attacks power. Terrorism -Type of Asymmetric warfare -Involves Political demands -Idea is to instill fear
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-Ideological religious differences -Target citizens -Gain support from public opinion -New technology makes communication easier between terrorist cells -American global penetration is why it’s a huge terrorist target. -Terrorists use failing states to recruit and train.
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#2 IS Midterm Study Guide - Chapter 7 IS Review Armed...

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