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IR Midterm review chaps 5&6

IR Midterm review chaps 5&6 - Chapters 5&6 Chapter 5...

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Chapters 5&6 Chapter 5: The Global South: Why do we care about poverty in the Global South? o Poverty is linked to war o Poverty is linked with terrorism o Fighting poverty in Global South will bring about other issues to the int’l agenda Colonization: o First wave (1492 – end of 18 th century) o Began in late 15 th century as Dutch, English, Spanish, French and Portuguese used their militaries to expand their empires o Early colonies implemented mercantilism to strengthen their colony, make it self sufficient (gold trade, tobacco industry) o Mercantilism- If you want a strong state you need a strong economy, become wealthy through trade utilizing import and export tariffs o Export rather than import, this makes a state less dependent on another state, and keeps production and money inside the growing state. o Adam Smith introduces the idea of free trade in 1776 which laid the foundation for laissez-faire economics, which emphasizes free markets with little gov’t regulation. Second wave of European Imperialism (early 1870’s – to pre-WWI) o New Imperialism is adapted by Europe, Japan, and U.S. o Economic liberalism- we need colonies to sell excess and invest surplus capital -- Lenin (1916) introduced capitalism and the monopolies that provoke other countries Global South refers to world’s poorer countries, economically les developed, most of which are Southern Hemisphere, and contain more than 80% of world’s population Global South countries are big, small. Some have oil and gas, others lack natural resources, some have subsistent economies, other autocracies Between 15 th and 20 th centuries colonization of Global South began and ended. Decolonization began around WWII and is now complete Economic Development Theory suggests that causes of poverty are internal, claims that the factors for poverty are low rates of productivity, lack of sufficient
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investment capital, and inadequate transportation and communication systems.
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