BIO 181R notes H and G, cell signaling

BIO 181R notes H - Cell Signaling Neuro-muscular junction Dynamic cell communication Dendritic cell T cell control A and B DC T cell recognition A

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cell Signaling Neuro-muscular junction Dynamic cell communication Dendritic cell- T cell control A and B DC- T cell recognition A and B Study Guide Describe features of cell signaling systems. Question: Why does high K+ in our blood signify death? Cell Signaling, the most important new area in biology. For multicellular life, signal systems are required. Cells are told how to behave, and to stay alive. Systems very similar and studied in yeast, C. elegans (worm), Drosophila (flies), animals and plants. Systems can have multiple functions including vision, memory, cell division, muscle contraction. Signaling molecules: protein, peptide, nucleotide, steroid, fatty acids, dissolved gases NO and CO. Light and odor are also signals. Cells have receptors for signaling molecules. Binding signal leads to a cascade of intracellular "2nd messengers", and may include regulators of gene expression. Most involve protein kinases- add phosphate to a protein (518 protein kinase genes in human cells, 1/3 proteins have Pi). Cells are low in Na+ and high in K+. Cells are also low in Ca2+. Opening ion channels allows rapid signaling. Cell programmed for response, may include division. A limited number of mechanisms are used for almost all signalling systems. Study Guide Describe the biological responses made to insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and leptin. Examples for regulating metabolism Epinephrine adrenal gland emergency, fight or flight liver; glycogen breakdown, glucose synthesis, slow glycolysis muscle; glucose from liver, glycogen breakdown, increase glycolysis adipose (fat); fatty acid release
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Glucagon produced by pancreas food shortage between meals or skipped meal liver; glycogen breakdown, glucose synthesis, slow glycolysis adipose; fatty acid release Insulin produced by pancreas after a meal liver; glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis to form acetyl CoA for fatty acid synthesis muscle; glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis adipose; fatty acid uptake and incorporation into triglycerides (fats) Leptin produced by adipose (fat) tissue signals fat levels in adipose tissue increases fatty acid oxidation in tissues Leptin and insulin regulate metabolism in our tissues, and signal our brain to reduce eating and increase metabolic rates. Study Guide Explain the experiment showing that cells are pre-programmed to respond to a signal. Differentiate between type of cell signaling (autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, synaptic).
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 181R taught by Professor Browser during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

Page1 / 14

BIO 181R notes H - Cell Signaling Neuro-muscular junction Dynamic cell communication Dendritic cell T cell control A and B DC T cell recognition A

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online