Evolution Post-Lab Assignment Online(1).xlsx - BIO 1414...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1414 - Evolution Name: Lab Section: Date: Michelle Howard BIO 1414- OBD 13-Sep-20 Group Members: Complete all questions, tables, and graphs on the four tabs following this Tit Answers to questions must be written in complete sentences. Upload to Blackboard by 11:59 P.M. by the due date. ollowing this Title page. e sentences. ue date. Random Mating and Hardy-Weinberg Principle Table 1 - Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies for Random Mating Parental Number of Genotypic Number of Alleles Genotype Individuals Frequency Alleles 25 0.25 B 100 BB 50 0.5 b 100 Bb 25 0.25 Total 200 bb 100 1.0 Total Offspring Genotype BB Bb bb Total Question 1: Number of Individuals 22 55 23 100 Genotypic Frequency 0.22 0.55 0.23 1.0 Alleles B b Total Number of Alleles 99 101 200 Do the allelic frequencies of the offspring match the parents? Explain your data. Roughly, yes the allelic frequencies match between the parent and off springs if roun Question 2: If the frequencies are significantly different, then one of the assumptions of the Hardy-Wein Principle was probably violated. Explain which one was violated in your answer. If n were violated, explain why this is the case. None were violated. The parental population for this experiment is not the same as would be when actually reproducing the two options are the same yet unlimited. In population once you get near the end your choices are limited to the last pieces Question 3: Take a picture of your setup for this procedure. Your picture should include the container th used for the “Parental Population” and the items used to represent the alleles. Insert your picture of your Procedure 1 setup in the designated area below. g Principle ndom Mating Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 Allelic Frequency 0.495 0.505 ents? Explain your data. rent and off springs if rounded. umptions of the Hardy-Weinberg olated in your answer. If none he case. eriment is not the same as it he same yet unlimited. In this e limited to the last pieces. ould include the container that you to represent the alleles. designated area below. 100% Negative Selection Pressure Table 2 - Genotypic Frequencies for 100% Negative Selection Number of Individuals Parental Genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 24 52 24 100 28 42 6 76 33 32 5 70 37 24 4 65 36 25 0 61 Calculate the allelic frequencies for B and b in the fifth generation. Total alleles= 122 B=97 b=25 B allelic frequency=97/122=0.795 b allelic frequency=25/122=0 Question 2: Did the frequency of the bb individuals decrease with successive generations? Explain why or wh Yes, there were less b to spread between the bb and the Bb. More likely to pull one b than tw once. Question 3: Was the decrease in the frequency of bb individuals between successive generations always the sa Explain why or why not. Initially yes until the 5th generation. Question 4: Is it possible to completely eliminate the red allele? Based on your data, approximately how many generations would it take? Question 4: Is it possible to completely eliminate the red allele? Based on your data, approximately how many generations would it take? For me, it ended in the 5th generation. But eliminating that one, id assume it would take 10 generations before it would be eliminated Question 5: Most naturally occurring selective pressures do not eliminate reproduction by the affected individu Instead, their reproductive capacity is reduced by a small proportion. How would your results differ was only 20% negative selection pressure rather than 100%? 20% would be cause for a different result. It would keep bb in the population and make it occ generations to come. Create a line graph of your data from Table 2 for the Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations i independent variable on the x-axis and Genotypic Frequency is the dependent variable on the yQuestion 6: Graph three lines, one for each genotype (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the three gen You will need to include a legend that includes all three genotypes. Be sure to title your graph, lab axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 2. You will want to cre table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down belo BB Generation vs Genotypic Frequency PP 1 2 3 4 5 60 Genotypic Frequency 50 25 24 28 33 37 36 40 30 20 10 0 PP 1 2 3 Generations 4 5 on Pressure % Negative Selection Genotypic Frequency 0.25 0.5 0.25 1.0 0.24 0.52 0.24 1.0 0.37 0.55 0.08 1.0 0.471 0.457 0.071 1.0 0.569 0.369 0.0615 1.0 0.59 0.41 0 1.0 fifth generation. Show your calculations. /122=0.795 b allelic frequency=25/122=0.205 ccessive generations? Explain why or why not. d the Bb. More likely to pull one b than two at ween successive generations always the same? why not. th generation. sed on your data, approximately how many more d it take? ting that one, id assume it would take 10-13 uld be eliminated minate reproduction by the affected individuals. proportion. How would your results differ if there ressure rather than 100%? eep bb in the population and make it occur in come. Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations is the quency is the dependent variable on the y-axis. mbols or colors to distinguish the three genotypes). enotypes. Be sure to title your graph, label your e a legend. ata from Table 2. You will want to create a h from that and include it down below. Bb 50 52 42 32 24 25 pic Frequency bb 25 24 6 5 4 0 BB Bb bb 3 4 5 Gene Flow Table 3 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Gene Flow Population 1 Population 1 Population 2 Number of Frequency of Number of Alleles B allele Alleles B Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total 90 10 100 88 12 100 80 20 100 74 26 100 66 34 100 10 0.9 0.88 0.8 0.74 0.66 90 100 13 87 100 22 78 100 33 69 100 44 56 100 Would changing the number of immigrants per generation (e.g. migrating 5 or 20 individuals each changes in frequencies? Explain your reasoning. Yes, the amount of immigrants per generation influences the frequencies directly. More means increased prevalance of migrated alleles Question 2: How does the differences in starting allelic frequencies between the two populations affect th frequencies? Explain your reasoning. The starting allelic frequencies were extremely different which resulted in a drastic cha frequencies for the population Create a line graph of the Frequency of B allele against the successive Generations for b populations from Table 3. Graph two lines, one for each population (use different symbols or colo Question 3: the two populations). You will need to include a legend that includes both populations. Be sur graph, label your axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 3. You will want to first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down be ne Flow Population 2 Frequency of B allele 0.1 0.13 0.22 0.31 0.44 5 or 20 individuals each time) affect the asoning. uencies directly. More immigrates d alleles wo populations affect the changes in ng. sulted in a drastic change of allelic ssive Generations for both of your different symbols or colors to distinguish oth populations. Be sure to title your egend. 3. You will want to create a table nd include it down below. Genetic Drift Table 4 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Genetic Drift Number of Frequency of Frequency of b Genotype B allele allele Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Generation 6 Generation 7 Generation 8 BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 0 3 1 4 1 3 4 0 0 4 4 0 0 4 4 0 0 4 4 0 0 4 4 0 0 4 0.5 0.5 0.375 0.625 0.125 0.875 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 Question 1: Is it possible to predict the frequencies of subsequent generations? Explain your reasoni Question 2: Would the effects of genetic drift differ with the sample size? Explain your reasoning Yes, a larger population may be able to have a variation for longer than a small popultion founders. Question 3: Why is this mechanism for evolution called genetic drift? The change of the allelic frequencies in the gene pool due to random sampling/chance. Question 4: Could genetic drift eventually lead to speciation? Explain why or why not. Yes, when seperated from its species the small population could develop unque charact over time that could lead to speciation Question 5: If one of the alleles for your experiment was lost (0%) and the other became fixed (100%), how lost allele be brought back into the population? Explain your reasoning. It could be brought back by mirating or mutation of the fixed allele. Create a line graph of the Allelic Frequency for each Generation from Table 4. Graph two line Question 6: each allele (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the two alleles). You will need to include that includes both alleles. Be sure to title your graph, label your axes, and include a leg Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 4. You will want to table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down be Explain your reasoning. xplain your reasoning. han a small popultion of just 4 tic drift? l due to random n why or why not. evelop unque characteristics ame fixed (100%), how could the your reasoning. he fixed allele. Table 4. Graph two lines, one for You will need to include a legend xes, and include a legend. 4. You will want to create a nd include it down below. ...
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