HIST final - 1. What were the essential elements of...

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1. What were the essential elements of America's "Cold War strategy" as it emerged in the decade after WWII? Why did this strategy emerge and how did the events in Korea affect American strategic thinking? After WWII US military was disarming US decided to be a part of world security UN Growing alarm about breaking alliance with Soviets Joint occupation of Germany (US, UK, USSR) Soviet occupation of European land for ‘security’ reason o Seen like land grabbing towards the west o Kennith- Said typical Russian style was to expand for its own security Led to cold war plans containment Government used military containment o Kennith wanted political containment o saw containment as doing more damage that it was preventing 1947 security act: o presents concern about being prepared in future o Retained the JCS + national security council + how to mobilize resources o Created the DOD: an overall security department that would determine what branch would do what o Created CIA: to spy o Created NSA: code breaking Truman Doctrine: o Commits US to outside states that are being pressured by outside forces o (US would aid (not go to war) and country that was being pressure by communism European Recovery program (Marshal Plan): o US would approve grants to help countries rebuild their economy to keep out communism Soviets cut off water and road access to Allied sectors of Berlin (Berlin Blockade) o Led to Berlin Airlift: US UK and French aircraft used 3 airstrips to deliver supplies to Berlin Over 11 months, ¾ of supplies delivered by US o Soviets back down Spies told Stalin that the US didn’t have many nukes or capability to deliver them. Executive Order 9981: Military had to integrate o Navy and Marines had no problem o Army resisted 1949 Peace time military alliance NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) o 2 sides of containment 1. Deterrence + having the muscle to back it up (the bomb) 2. Collective security, Marshal Plan, NATO
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Soviets test their atomic bomb in 1949 o Now US and USSR more or less on equal terms Peoples Republic of China (PRC) formed o President accused of ‘loosing china’ in Korean/Vietnam won’t loose another country to communism NSC 68: o National strategy for cold war (blueprint for cold war) o Assumes national conspiracy o Soviets are an expansionist system o Europe is at center of concerns o US must emerge in dramatic build up of military (arsenal of anti- communism) o US + west must probe for soviet weakness o Retreat into hemisphere, isolationism (rejected) o Preemption preemptive strike o Overall build up of forces Truman sees this as a 350% increases in military spending o Cant do it o June 1950, NSC 68 is DOA June 25 1950: North Korea invades South and crosses 38 th parallel o UN Security Council meets condemns North K and told them to pull back to the 38 th o Calls all UN nations to support South K
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HSTAA 212 taught by Professor Notsure during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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HIST final - 1. What were the essential elements of...

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