Session 1: The Globalization of Hip-Hop Culture Duke Ellington • Jazz Musician - Greatest Jazz composer of all time • Born in 1899, wrote “Thanks for the Beautiful Land on the Delta” in 1970 when he was 71 • Song was debuted at the New Orleans Jazz Festival • Hip-hop came from Jazz Characteristics of Western Music • “Western Music” refers to all music born in the Western World, including Europe. Records of this music exist back well over 1000 years • Although genres, styles and language have changed through centuries, the elements contained within comprise the foundation of Western Music as we know it • Europe is where instrumentation developed • Instrumentation alone often di ff erentiates Western Music from music of other cultures • When juxtaposed with Eastern music, Western music is often dais to be complex in a dense, harmonic, vertical fashion • Major Scale contains 7 notes • Chromatic Scale contains 12 notes • Half-Step is the smallest distance we have in Western Music • Octave is the same note in di ff erent registers Melody • Derived from scales of ordered sets of pitches from low to high to high to low • It is the perceptible tune of a piece of music • It stands out about the rest of the music (the part of the music we usually hum to) • Example: Twinkle Twinkle little star - the words you sing create the melody • Melodies derived from Western scales, most commonly major and minor scales, are the most identifiable pieces in western music Harmony • Occurs in music when 2 or more notes sound simultaneously • Can be classifies as consonant (pleasant) or dissonant (tense/complex) • Harmony plays a foundational role to the melody, giving melody a deeper meaning Chords • Occurs in music when 3 or more notes sound simultaneously • Classified as Major (Happy) or Minor (Sad) - Most hip-hop is minor Texture/Timbre • Texture in music refers to the nature or characteristics of the sound • Identifying involved taking into account all instruments sounding at one time • Each instrument has a unique timbre, just as each ensemble has its on timbre
Music Forms • Organizations of all individual pieced of music based on sections of music that repeat and sections that are controlled. A few forms include: Evolution of African-American Music • Though West-African connections may predominate, cross-ancestry within Native-American & European Cultures is also part of the development of African-American music The “Back” Beat • Sources of “Back Beat” • Work Songs • Chants • Prison Blues - “Early in the Morning” • Chain Gang - (cracking rocks - 1920 Chain Gang in Georgia) Vocal Blues • The “3 Stanza Blues Form” is the prototype to free styling hip-hop • Key Artists that helped form the template include: • Robert Johnson - “Hellhound on my Tail” • Son House • Bessie Smith (Queen of the Blues) Gospel • Referred to as Blues in a sacred context • Key Artist: • Mahalia Jackson Ragtime • Music on the Western Frontier - cowboy music • Key Artists: • Scott Joplin (the entertainer) • James P. Johnson Early Jazz • Key Artists: • Jelly Roll Morton •
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 45 pages?
- Winter '11
- Hip hop music