PSC 001 2/16/07 1) According to Henry Hale, party substitutes are entities that are able to out-compete parties in the provision of electoral goods and services under certain market conditions. Two examples of party substitutes in Russia are governors' political machines and politicized financial-industrial groups. The existence and strength of the party substitutes in Russia is not necessarily a negative factor in the development of democracy in that country. For example, Independent candidates had significant influence in the early development of both the U.S. and Indian democracies. 2) Clientalism is the provision by the government of specific benefits or favors to a single person or a small group in exchange for public support. Clientalism in Brazil began in the period known as 'The Old Republic', when ties were developed between the landowning oligarchy and the people it presided over in which the people would do the bidding of the ruling class in exchange for protection and favors. Sources of Brazilian clientalism include the combination
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