Geology Notes Test 1-1

Geology Notes Test 1-1 - Geology Notes Test 1 Minerals and...

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Geology Notes Test 1 1/16/08 Minerals and Rocks—minerals are the building blocks of rocks There are three types of rocks so there must be three types of minerals a. Igneous—crystallized from liquid, must be melted b. Sedimentary— sandstone and shale —comes from weathering and erosion of igneous rocks; limestone —result from organic activity (shells, coral, etc, for limestone), coal—formed by plants c. Metamorphic—means change so it’s changed by heart and pressure…must have a pre-existing rock that is then changed. Definition of a Mineral… a. Naturally occurring—not made by humans b. Inorganic—not made by animals and plants c. Definite Chemical Composition—you can express the composition of the mineral by a chemical formula i. Matter—the stuff of which the universe is made; two characteristics of having mass and occupying space ii. Elements—what makes up the matter, there are 92 naturally occurring elements and there are 109 named elements; named based on their atomic number or the number of protons the atom contains iii. Atoms—the building blocks of the elements 1. Nucleus is made of protons and neutrons and surrounded by shell of electron fields 2. Atomic Number—the number of protons in an element 3. Atomic Mass Number—the number of protons plus the number of neutrons 4. Atomic Weight—the mass of every particle in the atom (typically a decimal point) d. Characteristic Physical Properties i. Crystals—form of mineral that can grow if it’s growth isn’t interrupted by adjacent forms of crystals or other minerals ii. Crystalline—have an orderly internal arrangement of atoms…all minerals have this 1. Color—pertaining to its physical appearance…the least diagnostic of these physical properties because minerals can be different colors a. Trace elements—small number of atoms of some other element substituting for cations in the mineral composition…tend to be very color inducing 2. Luster—appearance of the mineral in reflective light a. Metallic—shiny doesn’t necessarily mean metallic; these minerals are opaque so light cannot pass through them b. Non-metallic—non-opaque minerals c. Earthy—has the appearance of soil
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3. Streak—the color of the powdered mineral on the plate of unglazed porcelain (streak plate) 4. Hardness—the resistance to scratch ; determined by Moh’s hardness scale (1-10)…not hitting it with a hammer because if you do this it will either shatter (fracture) or flatten 5. Cleavage—when a mineral breaks into predictable patterns and shapes…as you continue to break it, it continues to form smaller and smaller bits of the same shape pattern: planes of weakness within the crystalline structure; connotes a weakness in the bonding 6. Ductility—the ability to be drawn into wires
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Geology Notes Test 1-1 - Geology Notes Test 1 Minerals and...

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