Unformatted text preview: BIO 1414 - Microbiology
Group Members: Complete all questions, tables, and graphs on the three tabs following this Ti
Answers to questions must be written in complete sentences.
Upload to Blackboard by 11:59 P.M. by the due date. following this Title page.
ue date. Identify Microorganisms
Table 2. Unknown Microorganisms
Specimen Organism Type A Rhizopus fungi B Diatoms Protist C Yeast Fungi D S. volutans Bacteria E Gloeocapsa Cyano Bacteria F B. subtillis Bacteria G Spirogyra Protist H S. aureus Bacteria I Volvox Protist croorganisms wn Microorganisms
Description several blob shaped heads with long, skinny
tails that tend to link together and form clusters Randomly shaped and cloustered close
together small circles, clustered together Spiral shaped and tend to be spread out. They
have little tales on each end. Clumped green sphericals within a contained
circle Rod shaped and tend to group closely together Zigzagged, green pattern contained within a
long cell wall Spherical shaped and forms large clumped
groups Large green circle with other small dots inside Impacts of Handwashing
Why is using soap more effective than just using water? Question 1: Using soap to wash hands is more effective than using water alone because th
surfactants in soap lift soil and microbes from skin, and people tend to scrub han
more thoroughly when using soap, which further removes germs
Question 2: Question 3: Why should you scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds?
The optimal length of time for handwashing is also likely to depend on many facto
including the type and amount of foil on the hands.Evidence suggests that wash
hands for about 15-30 seconds removes more germs from the hands than washing
Why should you use running water instead of standing water to wash your hands?
Use running water instead of a basin of standing water that could become
contaminated through use.
Why should you always dry your hands after washing them? Question 4: It is important to dry hands thoroughly after washing because some bacteria rema
hands after washing, and these bacteria are more easily spread via wet hands than
Question 5: A group of students washed their hands for 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 15 seconds, and
seconds. At each time interval, their hands were swabbed. The swab was analyzed for
bacterial counts. The data is presented in the table. Calculate the average at each ti
point and create a single line graph of the averages for each time allocation. Be su
title your graph, label your axes, and include units for the axes.
Table 3. Bacterial Count (CFUs/mL) on hands of students after washing hands for
0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 seconds.
Student 1 0
4.5x105 Washing Time (Seconds)
8.5 x104 Student 2 4.7 x105 3.3 x105 1.5 x105 7.5 x 104 Student 3 4.1 x105 2.9 x105 1.0 x105 2.5 x 104 Student 4 5.0 x105 3.5 x105 2.5 x105 9.8 x 104 Average 4.6ml 3.3ml 1.6ml 7.1ml Use the area below to insert your line graph of the averages from Table 3.
You will want to create a table first of the averages, then create a line graph
from that and include it down below.
2.7 Average Bacterial Count
0 1 2 3
Washing time Question 6: 4 5 Average Using your calculated averages and graph from question 5, write a 50 word conclusi
As one takes a close look at the time versus the average of the bacteria count one
see how from 0 seconds to 10 seconds there is a drastic change in the amount
bacteria count. However, as we take a look at the 10 second mark, we see a decrea
the bacteria collected then on 15 seconds it has by far the most collected bacteria.
can be explained because as one washes their hands since the recommended tim
20 seconds, we can see how the bacteria washes out. Also we can also compare
the starting point and finish point 0 and 20 seconds once you finish washing yo
hands it has twice less the bacteria than when you started at 0 seconds. hing ust using water? sing water alone because the
nd people tend to scrub hands
urther removes germs east 20 seconds?
ely to depend on many factors,
vidence suggests that washing
rom the hands than washing for g water to wash your hands? g water that could become
se. er washing them? ecause some bacteria remain on
y spread via wet hands than dry. 10 seconds, 15 seconds, and 20
. The swab was analyzed for total
culate the average at each time
each time allocation. Be sure to
de units for the axes.
after washing hands for s)
1.2 x 104
5.5 x 104
2.7ml erages from Table 3.
en create a line graph
w. 5 n 5, write a 50 word conclusion
ge of the bacteria count one can
astic change in the amount of
cond mark, we see a decrease in
the most collected bacteria. This
since the recommended time is
Also we can also compare that
once you finish washing your
you started at 0 seconds. Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacteria
Question 1: Record which bacteria you are testing in Table 5. Record the susceptibility to each antibiotic as
resistant (R), intermediate (I), or sensitive (S) as well. Refer to Table 4 to determine the
susceptibility for each antibiotic.
Table 5. Antibiotic Sensitivity Which bacteria are you testing?
Antibiotic Bacteria susceptibility
R = resistant
I = intermediate
S = susceptibility Amoxicillin (AMC)
Penicillin G (P)
Question 2: Based on the results from the simulation, which antibiotics would you recommend for the
treatment of an S. aureus infection? If this was not your chosen bacteria, you will need to click
“Menu” and “Restart” the simulation until you get S. aureus. Question 3: Based on the results from the simulation, which antibiotics are not effective against an E. coli
infection? If this was not your chosen bacteria, you will need to click “Menu” and “Restart” the
simulation until you get E. coli. Question 4: Based on the results from the simulation, which antibiotics would you recommend for the
treatment of a P. aeruginosa infection? If this was not your chosen bacteria, you will need to
click “Menu” and “Restart” the simulation until you get P. aeruginosa. Question 5: Penicillin prevents a bacterium from producing a unique molecule in its cell wall. Why would you
expect penicillin to kill bacteria but not human cells? Question 5: Penicillin prevents a bacterium from producing a unique molecule in its cell wall. Why would you
expect penicillin to kill bacteria but not human cells?
Most bacteria cell walls are composed of a macromolecule peptidoglycan which
humans do not make. Penicillin prevents the assembly of the macromolecule which
results in a veryfragile cell wall that bursts and kills the bacteria. Question 5: Why do antibiotics not work on viruses? Do antibiotics work on fungi? Why or why not?
Antibiotics are routinely introduced into the food of cattle, chickens and other
livestock, which causes the animals to grow faster. Since the cost of antibiotics is
low, the use of antibiotics is an easy way to achieve faster weight gain in animals.
Explain how this practice could affect the probability of developing populations of
antibiotic-resistant bacteria that cause human disease. to each antibiotic as
to determine the commend for the
ou will need to click
us. ve against an E. coli
u” and “Restart” the commend for the
ia, you will need to
ginosa. wall. Why would you doglycan which
bacteria. Why or why not? kens and other
t of antibiotics is
gain in animals.
ng populations of
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