Evolution Post-Lab Assignment Online(.xlsx - BIO 1414...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1414 - Evolution Name: Lab Section: Date: Ivonne Garza 0CB September,12,2020 Group Members: Complete all questions, tables, and graphs on the four tabs following this Tit Answers to questions must be written in complete sentences. Upload to Blackboard by 11:59 P.M. by the due date. ollowing this Title page. e sentences. ue date. Random Mating and Hardy-Weinberg Principle Table 1 - Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies for Random Mating Parental Number of Genotypic Number of Alleles Genotype Individuals Frequency Alleles 25 0.25 B 100 BB 50 0.5 b 100 Bb 25 0.25 Total 200 bb 100 1.0 Total Offspring Genotype BB Bb bb Total Question 1: Number of Individuals 25 50 25 100 Genotypic Frequency 0.25 0.5 0.25 1.0 Alleles B b Total Number of Alleles 100 100 200 Do the allelic frequencies of the offspring match the parents? Explain your data. The allelic frequency of the parents and the offsprings match as you can see from the given. Hence it indicates that the Hardy Weinberg principles were not violated Question 2: If the frequencies are significantly different, then one of the assumptions of the Hardy-Wein Principle was probably violated. Explain which one was violated in your answer. If n were violated, explain why this is the case. In the Hardy Weinberg principles were not violated, such as mutations or genetic dri natural selection didn't occur and there was random mating occurring within the population, the allelic frequency did not change significantly. Question 3: Take a picture of your setup for this procedure. Your picture should include the container th used for the “Parental Population” and the items used to represent the alleles. Insert your picture of your Procedure 1 setup in the designated area below. g Principle ndom Mating Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 1 Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 1,0 ents? Explain your data. ch as you can see from the data nciples were not violated umptions of the Hardy-Weinberg olated in your answer. If none he case. as mutations or genetic drift or mating occurring within the nge significantly. ould include the container that you to represent the alleles. designated area below. 100% Negative Selection Pressure Table 2 - Genotypic Frequencies for 100% Negative Selection Number of Individuals Parental Genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 27 46 27 100 35 30 8 73 39 22 4 65 40 20 1 61 42 16 2 60 Calculate the allelic frequencies for B and b in the fifth generation. The final allelic frequency for B in the fifth generation is 60. The final allelicfrequency for b in t generation is .33 Question 2: Did the frequency of the bb individuals decrease with successive generations? Explain why or wh yes, the frequency of bbindividuals did decrease withsiccessive generations. Question 3: Was the decrease in the frequency of bb individuals between successive generations always the sa Explain why or why not. The decrease in the frequencies ofbb individuals between successivegenerations was not a thesame,because of thenaturalselection Question 4: Is it possible to completely eliminate the red allele? Based on your data, approximately how many generations would it take? Question 4: Is it possible to completely eliminate the red allele? Based on your data, approximately how many generations would it take? Technically, you could eliminatethe red allele, but it would take avery long time and very manygenerations Question 5: Most naturally occurring selective pressures do not eliminate reproduction by the affected individu Instead, their reproductive capacity is reduced by a small proportion. How would your results differ was only 20% negative selection pressure rather than 100%? I don’t think that the results would differ very much. I just believe thatthe actual number would'vestayed the same, butthe frequency percentages would stay the same Create a line graph of your data from Table 2 for the Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations i independent variable on the x-axis and Genotypic Frequency is the dependent variable on the yQuestion 6: Graph three lines, one for each genotype (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the three gen You will need to include a legend that includes all three genotypes. Be sure to title your graph, lab axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 2. You will want to cre table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down belo Generation Parental 1 2 3 4 5 BB 25 27 35 39 40 42 Bb 50 46 30 22 20 16 100% Natural Selection 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 Generation 4 BB 5 Bb bb 6 on Pressure % Negative Selection Genotypic Frequency 0.25 0.5 0.25 1.0 0.27 0.46 0.27 1.0 0.48 0.41 0.11 1.0 0.6 0.34 0.06 1.0 0.656 0.328 0.016 1.0 0.7 0.27 0.033 1.0 fifth generation. Show your calculations. is 60. The final allelicfrequency for b in the fifth s .33 ccessive generations? Explain why or why not. crease withsiccessive generations. ween successive generations always the same? why not. tween successivegenerations was not always enaturalselection sed on your data, approximately how many more d it take? ut it would take avery long time and very tions minate reproduction by the affected individuals. proportion. How would your results differ if there ressure rather than 100%? uch. I just believe thatthe actual numbers y percentages would stay the same Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations is the quency is the dependent variable on the y-axis. mbols or colors to distinguish the three genotypes). enotypes. Be sure to title your graph, label your e a legend. ata from Table 2. You will want to create a h from that and include it down below. bb 25 27 8 4 1 2 election b 5 bb 6 Gene Flow Table 3 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Gene Flow Population 1 Population 1 Population 2 Number of Frequency of Number of Alleles B allele Alleles B Generation 1 b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: 90 10 100 87 13 100 86 14 100 83 17 100 89 11 100 50 0.9 0.87 0.87 0.83 0.89 50 100 53 47 100 54 46 100 57 43 100 55 45 100 Would changing the number of immigrants per generation (e.g. migrating 5 or 20 individuals each changes in frequencies? Explain your reasoning. Yes, because there would greater chances of a greater mix the alleles Question 2: How does the differences in starting allelic frequencies between the two populations affect th frequencies? Explain your reasoning. Allele frequencies may get changed in a population by the following four factors such a genetic drift, natural selection, and mutation. These factors vialate the Hardy wienberg ru change in allele frequency. Only mutation can create new variants of alleles in a population factors only rearrange the alleles in a population or between the population Create a line graph of the Frequency of B allele against the successive Generations for b populations from Table 3. Graph two lines, one for each population (use different symbols or colo Question 3: the two populations). You will need to include a legend that includes both populations. Be sur graph, label your axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 3. You will want to first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down be Generation 1 2 3 4 5 pop1 0.9 0.87 0.86 0.83 0.89 pop2 0.5 0.53 0.54 0.57 0.55 Graph fotr gene flow 6 5 Graph fotr gene flow 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 Generation 3pop1 pop2 4 ne Flow Population 2 Frequency of B allele 0.5 0.53 0.54 0.57 0.55 5 or 20 individuals each time) affect the asoning. ater mix the alleles wo populations affect the changes in ng. ng four factors such as gene flow, he Hardy wienberg rules and causes alleles in a population and rest three etween the population. ssive Generations for both of your different symbols or colors to distinguish oth populations. Be sure to title your egend. 3. You will want to create a table nd include it down below. 4 5 Genetic Drift Table 4 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Genetic Drift Number of Frequency of Frequency of b Genotype B allele allele Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Generation 6 Generation 7 Generation 8 Question 1: Question 2: Question 3: BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 0 2 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 4 Is it possible to predict the frequencies of subsequent generations? Explain your reasoni Yes, we can predict the allelic frequency of subsequent generation if the population is in weinberg equilibrium. Because according to the principle of hardy weinberg equilibrium alleleic frequency remains constant from generation to generation. Would the effects of genetic drift differ with the sample size? Explain your reasoning In the surviving sample, the genetic drift leads to loss of the one kind of population fr geographical area due to the presence of natural pressure such as fire, flood etc. This is genotype frequency will change in case of genetic drift. Why is this mechanism for evolution called genetic drift? This is called genetic drift because there is loss of one kind of population as occur in gen In genetic drift there is found random fixation of alleles. Question 4: Could genetic drift eventually lead to speciation? Explain why or why not. If genetic drift lead to enough changes in population gene it could no longer with orig population than speciation would occur. Question 5: If one of the alleles for your experiment was lost (0%) and the other became fixed (100%), how bebbrought back into theinpopulation? Explain reasoning. In above chartlost bothallele B and allele are present equal frequency. If your for example, b allele l population then by crossing between heterozygous allele we easily maintain the same fre Bb × Bb Progeny: BB Bb Bb bb By crossing between heterozygous Genotype we easily retain gain lost allele freque Create a line graph of the Allelic Frequency for each Generation from Table 4. Graph two line Question 6: each allele (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the two alleles). You will need to include that includes both alleles. Be sure to title your graph, label your axes, and include a leg Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 4. You will want to table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down be Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency B Frequency b 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 9 0.5 0.5 8 0.5 0.5 7 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 6 Genetic Drif 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Generation 4 5 Frequency B 6 Frequenc Explain your reasoning. n if the population is in hardy y weinberg equilibrium, the to generation. xplain your reasoning. e kind of population from a fire, flood etc. This is why the etic drift. tic drift? lation as occur in genetic drift. of alleles. n why or why not. uld no longer with original r. ame fixed (100%), how could the your reasoning. for example, b allele lost from maintain the same frequency . gain lost allele frequency Table 4. Graph two lines, one for You will need to include a legend xes, and include a legend. 4. You will want to create a nd include it down below. etic Drif 5 Frequency B 6 7 Frequency b 8 ...
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