27_an_introduction_to_genetic_analysis - A Adenine or...

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A Adenine or adenosine. abortive transduction The failure of a transducing DNA segment to be incorporated into the recipient chromosome. acentric chromosome A chromosome having no centromere. achondroplasia A type of dwarfism in humans, inherited as an autosomal dominant phenotype. acrocentric chromosome A chromosome having the centromere located slightly nearer one end than the other. active site The part of a protein that must be maintained in a specific shape if the protein is to be functional—for example, in an enzyme, the part to which the substrate binds. adaptation In the evolutionary sense, some heritable feature of an individual's phenotype that improves its chances of survival and reproduction in the existing environment. adaptive landscape The surface plotted in a three-dimensional graph, with all possible combinations of allele frequencies for different loci plotted in the plane and with mean fitness for each combination plotted in the third dimension. adaptive peak A high point (perhaps one of several) on an adaptive landscape; selection tends to drive the genotype composition of the population toward a combination corresponding to an adaptive peak. adaptive surface See adaptive landscape. adaptor protein A protein that binds to certain specific phosphorylated amino acid sequences on a second protein, often a transmembrane receptor, and associates with still other proteins, thereby allowing a complex of proteins to “dock” to the receptor. This docking brings proteins of this complex in proximity to one another and, by doing so, permits propagation of an intracellular signal in a signal transduction pathway. additive genetic variance Genetic variance associated with the average effects of substituting one allele for another. adenine A purine base that pairs with thymine in the DNA double helix. adenosine The nucleoside containing adenine as its base. adenosine triphosphate See ATP. adjacent segregation In a reciprocal translocation, the passage of a translocated and a normal chromosome to each of the poles.
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ADP Adenosine diphosphate. Ala Alanine (an amino acid). albino A pigmentless “white” phenotype, determined by a mutation in a gene coding for a pigment-synthesizing enzyme. alkylating agent A chemical agent that can add alkyl groups (for example, ethyl or methyl groups) to another molecule; many mutagens act through alkylation. allele One of the different forms of a gene that can exist at a single locus. allele frequency A measure of the commonness of an allele in a population; the proportion of all alleles of that gene in the population that are of this specific type. allopatric speciation The process of the splitting of a species into two or more new species that occurs between populations that are geographically isolated from each other.
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