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Ell Laws and Program ModelsTheresa MusickWestern Governors UniversityJuly 21, 2020NMA1 Task 1
Ell Laws and Program ModelsA. Describe ELL Federal and State Programs1.Four Federal Influential LawsPeople who require financial assistance from Federal aid cannot be discriminated against due to their race, color, or national origin under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Education of non-English speaking students fall under Title IV and the Civil Rights Act umbrella. ELL students must be offered support, education, and other services until they can compete academically with their native English-speaking peers. Under Title IV ELLs must meet three criteria:The bilingual program must be "Based on sound educational theory."The program must be "Implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space.After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers.For bilingual education, establishing the Federal Policy Bilingual Education Act of Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968 (EDEA) was vital. "Innovative" bilingual programs would receive federal aid under this act. The funding would allow school districts to develop programs, hire specialized certified teachers, and have the continuation of theprogram. In 1994 Title VII of the American Schools Act was reauthorized and largely remained the same.Students who are enrolled in public schools must receive equal educational opportunities.Children cannot be discriminated against due to race, color sex. or nationality. Therefore, under the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974, non-English speaking students cannot be denied
Ell Laws and Program Modelsan education. School districts must provide non-English speaking students language instruction so that they may gain English language proficiency.In 2001 the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was passed and was in effect from 2001-2005. NCLB was similar to the Elementary and Secondary Act of 1968. Its goal was to help disadvantaged students including non-English speaking students. ELL students must receive grade-level content learning as well as language learning and support. Under Title II of NCLB, schools are held more accountable with stricter guidelines for student success. To ensure studentsare receiving adequate and meaningful instruction students are assessed annually. NCLB was replaced in 2015 by the Every Student Succeeds Act.2.Three Federal Court Cases"Every student brings to the starting line of his educational career different advantages and disadvantages caused by social, economic, and cultural background created and continues completely apart from any contribution by the school system. (Court of Appeals, 1974)." After being denied in district court, Kinney Kimmon Lau and twelve other Chinese students in San Francisco brought their case to the Supreme Court. The case Lau vs. Nichols stated that out of 2856 Chinese speaking students, only 1000 were receiving English learning courses. Meaning the remainder 1800 were not receiving any type of language instruction. This meant students'