QUIZ 2 MATH 338October 5th2020Chinese developed a powerful number systemCounting boards to help with calculations: one column for positive numbers one fornegative numberThey used base 10 counting systemPowerful set of exams in China in order to get a government job. Everyone knewwhat were going to be on the exams, they learned how to do those things to passthe examsNo creative mathematics which restricted the development of mathematicsWere not interested in any degree bigger than 3Arabs were not interested in proofs, many of the things they did were wrong butalso some was correctWhen the Arab’s work got to Europe, the Europeans justified and proved their workWe have the Greek books because of the Arab mathematicians. In Europe, theGreek books were burned.The Greek books were in ArabicAround1200, the Crusaders (Western Europeans sent to holy land to save theChristians from the heathens)The crusaders conquered Jerusalem and brough back to western Europe some ofthe books that were in Arabic. They were extremely rare.There were copies (only 1 or 2) of the algebra book.No copies of Euclid brought back1.Abelard of Bathtraveled to Spain and dressed as a MuslimHe studied in Toledo (Spain) as a MuslimHe founds books written in Arabic that seemed to be written about Greeks. Therehe found EUCLID in ArabicHe translated Euclid intoLatin(it was the only Latin translation of Euclid for thenext 300 years)This was the first resurfacing of Euclid in Western Europe2.In Pisa,Leonardo Di Pisa(nickname was Fibonacci) got a copy of Al-Khwarizmi’sbooks on algebra and Hindu numeralsFibonacci’s father was BonacciHe did not have the complete works of Al-Khwarizmi’s but the fame of him camefrom Leonardo Di Pisa since he translated itFibonacci referred to Hindu numerals asArabic numeralsThese two events reintroduced mathematics into Western Europe1450-1500 when things started happening again in Western Europe. From 1200-1500there were only sporadic efforts to do anything-The Italian algebraists became the most important1460-1492

1.Invention of the printing presswhich had an extremely important impact onthe development of scienceThe printing press was able to print copies of Euclid so the works of the AncientGreeks became available everywhereMath books became available2.Constantinople was conquered by the TurksMany of the books in Constantinople were rescued so the libraries were emptiedoutThe original Greek editions of the books became available in Western EuropeAll the copies of Euclid in Europe were Latin translated of the Arabic translations ofthe original Greek. There were no original Greek copies. But then, when they gotconquered by the Turks, the Greek originals became available in Western Europe3.The Spanish drove the Muslims from SpainOpened up Greek Mathematics to Western EuropeThe math books that existed were at the Universities in Europe and the monasteries.

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