Chapter 1 - How Princes should rule and what makes them successful ●Machiavelli starts by providing a categorization of governments that have existed in history ○He claims there are only two sorts of government: ○republics and principalities ■According to Machiavelli, the defining characteristic of a principalityis heredity—that is, rulership is passed down through a family. ●Next, Machiavelli introduces subcategorization of principalities ○They can be old, meaning the ruling family has been in power for a long time ○or they can be new, meaning the ruling family takes territory to start its own domain or to add to its existing domain ●Concerning new principalities, Machiavelli introduces two further sub-categorizations ●These have to do with how the new principalities were ruled in the past, and how the prince secured the new domains ●Machiavelli further divides new principalities into those that were previously ruled by a prince and those that were previously republics ○There are a number of different ways to secure a new domain, according to Machiavelli, including by military force, by luck, by skill, or by some combination thereof. Chapter 2 - discusses principalities ●Machiavelli discusses principalities that have long been under the rule of the family of a prince. ●In such a situation, the job of ruling is easier for the prince ○By maintaining the status quo, and adjusting when the situation demands it, the prince satisfies the people ●Even if the prince is deposed,he will have a good chance to retake his domain as long as he lives ●When a new prince begins to have difficulties keeping his people satisfied, they will want the old prince back ○At the very least, the people will not hinder the old prince if he tries to retake his domain ○They may even agitate for his return. ○Hereditary prince is more loved Chapter 3 - ●Machiavelli discusses the difficulties encountered in ruling over newly acquired domains ○A fundamental problem in acquiring a new domain is the danger of earning the hatred of the people in new territories ○Machiavelli argues that there is no way to avoid causing harm to new subjects ○At the very least, the prince will upset habitual ways of life ●More likely, he will have to take the lives or property of some of the people and threaten to do the same to others ●New territories (which Machiavelli assumes have been taken by military force) must be occupied by foreign troops. ○The people will tolerate these harms only if they believe their lives will be substantially better under the rule of the new prince than under the previous government ○Should this prove not to be the case, the people will not aid their new prince should the territory be threatened ○They may even work against the new prince—especially if those threatening his domain belong to the government that existed before the new prince.