Exam 2 Review - Chapter 5 Fundamental Networking Concepts A...

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Chapter 5 Fundamental Networking Concepts A computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines. Three basic types of networks are: Local area networks (LANs) –connects computers that reside in a single geographic location on the premises of the company that operates the LAN. Wide area networks (WANs) –connects computers at different geographic sites. Internet – a network of networks (the author defines an internet as a network of networks and distinguishes between internets and the Internet) The networks that comprise the Internet use a large variety of communication methods and conventions, and data must flow seamlessly across them. This is accomplished via communications protocols. Protocols, Programs, and Architecture A protocol is a standard means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities. A communications protocol is a means for coordinating activity between two or more communicating computers. Two machines must agree on the protocol to use, and they must follow that protocol as they send messages back and forth. An architecture is an arrangement of protocol layers in which each layer accomplishes a specific task The most commonly used architecture is comprised of five levels and is known as TCP/IP-OSI architecture . A program is a product that implements a protocol Internet Explorer and Netscape are programs that implement the HTTP protocol at the top level of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture Local Area Networks A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers connected together on a single company site. Each device on a LAN has a hardware component called a network interface card (NIC) that connects the device’s circuitry to the cable. Each NIC has a unique identifier, which is called the (MAC) media access control address. Communicating devices have two addresses: physical address (MAC) and an IP address (logical address). The devices on a LAN are connected using one of two media: Unshielded, twisted pair (UTP) cable. Optical fiber cables Wireless connections are also used with LANs. The NIC for wireless devices are denoted as WNIC. IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet Protocol
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The committee that addresses LAN standards is called the IEEE 802 Committee; IEEE LAN protocols always start with the number 802. Today, the world’s most popular protocol for LAN is the IEEE 802.3 protocol . This protocol standard, also called Ethernet, specifies hardware characteristics such as which wire carries which signals. It also describes how messages are to be packaged and processed for transmission over the LAN. Ethernet operates at Layers 1 and 2 of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture.
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