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Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack

A ethylene diol hoch2ch2oh is soluble in water b a

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Unformatted text preview: raction which remains undissociated Freezing point depression - again, a direct consequence of vapour pressure lowering - a substance freezes when the vapour pressure of the liquid has dropped to be equal to the vapour pressure of the pure solid - since the vapour pressure for any given temperature is lower, you will reach that vapour pressure at a higher temperature - on a phase diagram, the line between solid and liquid moves left ΔTf = ikfm (freezing point elevation constant times molality times the electrolyte factor) Osmotic pressure - refers to movement through a semi- permeable membrane (which solvent can pass through but solute cannot) - flow of the solvent will be to the side with the higher concentration of solute - the more solute particles present, the stronger the flow (and the flow is called the osmotic pressure) Π = inRT/V (and since n/V = Msolute, we could also write that as Π = MRT) Ethan Newton & Barry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 26 7.0 Thermodynamics Is used to study the transfer of energy that will determine if a given process is possible. There are three key definitions in thermodynamics: − System: the material we are examining − Surroundings: the area outside the system − Universe: is the system and the surrounding studied as a whole Systems: Since we are studying the transfer of energy it is essential to understand which type of system we are studying. In an open system the energy and matter can be transferred, in a closed system only the energy can be transferred (no exchange of material), and in an isolated system there is no escape of energy or material. In a isolated system there is no work done on the system since there no work done to the surrounding and there is no work done on the system. However in an open system and a closed system work can be done. State Function: Is a time/path- independent value. Hence a state function is dependent on an initial and final state but it is independent of the path taken. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: − If state A and C are in thermal equilibrium with B then A is in a thermal equilibrium with C. − If two objects are in thermal contact with one another then the temperature of the two objects will change ti...
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