Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack

E copper has 4 oxidation states cu cu2 cu3 cu4 we

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Unformatted text preview: - Standardized naming system for chemical compounds - Used to ensure that two compounds do not have the same name o Metals often have different oxidation states which need to be incorporated into the name of a molecule o I.e. Copper has 4 oxidation states Cu+, Cu+2, Cu+3, Cu+4 - We therefore incorporate the oxidation state into the name of a compound by adding it in parentheses using roman numerals o I.e. Copper (II) oxide -OUS and –IC Naming System - Not commonly used anymore - For a given an; a lower oxidation state is given the ending –ous and a higher oxidation state is given the ending –ic - For metals, the Latin name is often used o Ie. copper = cuprum - Examples: o Lead – Pb2+ = plumbous o Pb4+= plumbic Stoichiometry: Empirical Vs. Molecular Formula The Molecular Formula is the total number of atoms in a molecule The Empirical Formula is the lowest whole number ratio of atoms - Can be calculated by looking at the ratio between the number of moles of each atom using the formula: n = m MM - after the number of moles of each have been calculated, to determine the ration, simply divide each atom involved by the SMALLEST number of moles - in€ essence we are assuming that there is only 1 of this atom; however, this can be altered if the resulting ratios are fractional numbers since both empirical and molecular formulae must consist of only whole numbers of atoms i.e. a ratio yielding 1 O, 3 H, 1.5 C would need to be multiplied by two to ensure all numbers are integers: C 3H 6O Balancing Equations - PICK THE METHOD THAT WORKS BEST FOR YOU!!!! - All that is important here is that you have the same number of each atom present on one side of the equation as you do on the other 2.0 Atomic Structure/ Quantum Mechanics Ethan Newton & Barry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 4 Electromagnetic Radiation: Electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and are in phase with one another Waves are studied through their: − Wavelength (λ) o The distance in between the consecutive crest − Frequency (v) o The number of oscillations per second o Measured in Hertz (s- 1) − Speed (c) o c = λ × v Interference: the combination of two or more waves − Combining same phase increases the amplitude à༎ known as constructive interference € − Combined out of phase waves cancel out à༎ destructive interference Blackbody Radiation: − The initial starting point of the wave must be equal to the final point of the wave 2L − λ= nx − In 3- D boxes we have to worry about 3 dimensions = 3 numbers ny nx & nz € à༎ More waves at higher frequencies − Intensity of the wave increases as the frequency increases − Emitted light/Energy emitted is QUANTIZED meaning only discrete amounts of energy can be emitted from a material E = hv h = 6.656 × 10 −34 Js Photoelectric Effect: − By shining a light on a metal surface the energy of the electron is raised causing one € electron to become excited and eject off the surface − A threshold frequency must be exceeded in order to eject an electro...
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2012 for the course CHEM 112 taught by Professor Carran during the Winter '08 term at Queens University.

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