Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack

G hexanol chem 112 ethan newton barry zhang 2011 2012

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: is were a reaction involving gasses K=KP € Relationship between Δ G° and the Extent of Reaction ( − ΔG o / RT ) Because K = e these relationships can be made: • If ΔG° is large and negative K will also be large meaning at equilibrium there will be more products than reactants • If ΔG° is large and positive K will be very small, meaning at equilibrium there will be much more € reactants than products • If ΔG° is close to zero then K is close to 1 which means that you have similar amounts of product and reactant at equilibrium In a reaction the K value changes with temperature. Using the van’t Hoff equation we can determine the K at any temperature: ln K2 − ΔH o = K1 R[ / T2 − 1 / T1 ] 1 Alternatively we can calculate K by determining the enthalpy and entropy values to find free energy and use this equation: K =e € ( − ΔG o / RT ) € Ethan Newton & Barry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 45 11.0 Acid and Base Chemistry Arrhenius Definition Acid: substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ex. HCl H+(aq) + Cl- (aq) Base: substance that releases hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. ex. NaOH(s) à༎ Na+(aq) + OH- (aq) Arrhenius Neutralization Suggests that neutralization reactions between an acid and base produce a salt and water. ex. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) à༎ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) The net ionic equation for this reaction demonstrates the neutralization of the acid and base ions. ex. H+ + OH- H2O(l) Bronsted- Lowry Definition Acid: substance that donates a proton (hydrogen ion). Base: substance that accepts a proton Every acid - base reaction occurs in a conjugate pairing RCOOH(aq) + H2O(l) RCOO- (aq) + H3O+(aq) Acid Base Conj. Base Conj. Acid The Conjugate base is what is left behind after the acid donates a proton The Conjugate acid is what is created after the base accepts a proton. Identifying an acidic Hydrogen The proton to be donated will usually appear sequestered on one side of the chemical formula. ex. CH3COOH or H3O+...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online