Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack

G hexanol chem 112 ethan newton barry zhang 2011 2012

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Unformatted text preview: is were a reaction involving gasses K=KP € Relationship between Δ G° and the Extent of Reaction ( − ΔG o / RT ) Because K = e these relationships can be made: • If ΔG° is large and negative K will also be large meaning at equilibrium there will be more products than reactants • If ΔG° is large and positive K will be very small, meaning at equilibrium there will be much more € reactants than products • If ΔG° is close to zero then K is close to 1 which means that you have similar amounts of product and reactant at equilibrium In a reaction the K value changes with temperature. Using the van’t Hoff equation we can determine the K at any temperature: ln K2 − ΔH o = K1 R[ / T2 − 1 / T1 ] 1 Alternatively we can calculate K by determining the enthalpy and entropy values to find free energy and use this equation: K =e € ( − ΔG o / RT ) € Ethan Newton & Barry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 45 11.0 Acid and Base Chemistry Arrhenius Definition Acid: substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ex. HCl H+(aq) + Cl- (aq) Base: substance that releases hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. ex. NaOH(s) à༎ Na+(aq) + OH- (aq) Arrhenius Neutralization Suggests that neutralization reactions between an acid and base produce a salt and water. ex. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) à༎ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) The net ionic equation for this reaction demonstrates the neutralization of the acid and base ions. ex. H+ + OH- H2O(l) Bronsted- Lowry Definition Acid: substance that donates a proton (hydrogen ion). Base: substance that accepts a proton Every acid - base reaction occurs in a conjugate pairing RCOOH(aq) + H2O(l) RCOO- (aq) + H3O+(aq) Acid Base Conj. Base Conj. Acid The Conjugate base is what is left behind after the acid donates a proton The Conjugate acid is what is created after the base accepts a proton. Identifying an acidic Hydrogen The proton to be donated will usually appear sequestered on one side of the chemical formula. ex. CH3COOH or H3O+...
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