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Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack

To a higher orbital by accepting energy or can be

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Unformatted text preview: n (vEM > v0) − The energy that is left over is the kinetic energy of the electron − Increasing the intensity of the electromagnetic waves increases the number of electrons ejected but does not alter the energies of the electrons 1 m EEM = Φ mu 2 Where ½ u2 is the + Mathematically: 2 kinetic energy of the Atomic Spectra: atoms that occupy ejected electron well- defined energy levels € Ethan Newton & Barry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 5 € € € € Bohr Model: − Electrons move in a circular orbit around the nucleus − The angular momentum (L) nh o L= 2π o L = mr 2ω − Electrons can be excited to a higher orbital by accepting energy, or can be relaxed by emitting energy € € In order to measure the energy in the Bohr model the following equation is used −R E n = 2H n R H : Rydberg energy = 2.179x10- 18 J − The energy is more negative for a smaller n, this means that the atom is more stable − Small n correspond to smaller radii, hence the electrons are closer to the nucleus − A n=1 state is also known as the ground state − In order to remove the electron from the atom (excite the electron) the electron needs to be ionized à༎ ionization energy I = E ∞ − E1 o Ionization energy is hence positive since it is the input energy Overall the energy is equal to € #1 1& E n = R H % 2 − 2 ( nt ' $ nb Wave: Finding the wavelength of the particle h λ= mu u: the velocity of the particle − From the momentum of the particle we can find the wavelength however there is no way of knowing the position of the electron The equation for the momentum is p = mv Quantum Numbers: € Ethan Newton & Barry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 6 n: principle quantum number − Energy of the orbital − Represented by positive integer values l: angular momentum quantum number − Takes on positive integers from 0 to n- 1 − Determines the shape of the orbital Angular Momentum Quantum Number Orbitals l=0 s l=1 p 1=2 d 1=3 f ml: magnetic quantum number − Can take on integer values from –l to l − Determines the orientation of the orbitals ms: magnetic spin quantum number − Can be +1/2 or - 1/2 − Electrons spinning in clockwise or counter clockwise All orbitals that have the same principle quantum number are in the same principle shell which contains n2 orbitals All orbitals with the same principle quantum number and angular momentum quantum number are in the same sub- shell which contains 2l+1 orbitals Degenerate Orbitals:...
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