Midterm Review

Midterm Review - Latin 3 Midterm Grammar Review Page 1...

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Latin 3 – Midterm Grammar Review Page 1 Chapter 23 – Participles participles = verbal adjectives (adjectives formed from a verb stem) Agree in case, gender, and number with the words they modify Have tense and voice; take direct objects and other constructions, modified by an adverb or an adverbial phrase participial stem = dropping the endings from the perfect passive participle (4 th principal part of a verb) ex. laudât- from laudâtus, -a, -um Active Passive Presen t Present stem + -ns (gen. –ntis) n/a Perfect n/a Partic. Stem + -us, -a, um Future Participial stem + -ûrus, ûra, ûrum Pres. Stem + -ndus, -nda, -ndum Participle Examples Act. Pass. Act. Pass. Act. Pass. Pres. Agêns n/a Audiêns n/a Capiêns n/a Perf. n/a Actus n/a Audîtus n/a Captus Fut. Âcturus Agendus Audîtûrus Audiendu s Captûrus Capiendu s
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Latin 3 – Midterm Grammar Review Page 2 Declension of Participles Singular Plural N. N. Nom. Agêns Agiens Agentês Agentia Gen. Agentis Agentis Agentium Agentium Dat. Agentî Agentî Agentibus Agentibus Acc. Agentem Agêns Agentês Agentia Abl. Agentî, Agente Agentii, Agente Agentibus Agentibus Present participle = action contemporaneous with that of the verb (the same time) Perfect participle = action prior to that of the verb (time before) Future participle = action subsequent to that of the verb (time after) May be translated as a clause with an appropriate subordinating conjunction
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Latin 3 – Midterm Grammar Review Page 3 Chapter 24 – Ablative Absolute, Passive Periphrastic, Dative of Agent Ablative Absolute Participial phrase consisting of a noun/pronoun and modifying participle in the ablative case Phrase is framed by ablative noun/pronoun and the participle Passive Periphrastic Conjugation: Gerundive + Sum Gerundive = future passive participle Passive periphrastic = gerundive + sum Conveys an idea of necessary, obligation, appropriate action Dative of Agent Used with the passive periphrastic Ex. Hic liber mihi cum cûrâ legendus erit This book will have to be read by me with care or (better) I will have to (ought to, must, should) read this book with care. Chapter 25 – Infinitives, Indirect Statement Active Passive Pres. -âre, -êre, -ere, -îre -ârî, -êrî, -î Perf. Perfect stem + -isse Perf. Pass. Participle + esse Fut. Fut. Act. Participle + esse [supine in –um + îrî ]
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Latin 3 – Midterm Grammar Review Page 4 Active Passive Pres. agere , to lead agî , to be lead Perf. êgisse , to have led âctus, -a, um esse , to have been led Fut. âcturus, -a, -um , to be about to lead, to be going to lead actum irî , to be about to e led, to be going to be led Usage of Infinitives As a subject : errâre est humânum, to err is human As a complement with such verbs as possum and dêbeô: discêdere nunc possunt, they can leave now As a direct object with its own accusative subject: iussit eôs venire, he ordered them to come
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Midterm Review - Latin 3 Midterm Grammar Review Page 1...

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