Intelligence - 1 Intelligence Intelligence Intelligence is a set of cognitive skills that include abstract thinking reasoning problem solving and the

Intelligence - 1 Intelligence Intelligence Intelligence is...

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Intelligence Intelligence Intelligence is a set of cognitive skills that include abstract thinking, reasoning, problem solving, and the ability to acquire knowledge. Defining Intelligence Francis Galton introduced psychophysical performance: Intelligence was composed of two qualities: the capacity for labor (strength) and sensitivity to physical stimuli. James Cattell brought Galton’s ideas to the U.S. Cattell proposed a series of 50 psychophysical tests, including hand strength, rate of arm movement, and distance threshold for detecting two distinct skin pressure points. However, these ideas are rejected by Clark Wissler, who argued that performance on these tests of “intelligence” should be related to academic performance. Theories of Intelligence Entity theorist —intelligence fixed Incremental theorist —intelligence variable Two views of intelligence: 1. Intelligence is a single, general ability (lumpers) 2. Intelligence consists of multiple abilities (Splitters) Intelligence as One General Ability Charles Spearman developed the first theory of intelligence. Ex: if you are good at math, you are good at English, history, and psychology as well. G-factor theory : Spearman’s theory that intelligence is a single general (g) factor made up of specific components. Ex: 115 scores on an intelligence test means smarter than 110. Specific intelligence (s): the differences between the different things subjects were tested on. Intelligence as Multiple Abilities Louis Thurstone argues that verbal, quantitative, and other abilities are distinct dimensions of intelligence, not just general one. Multiple-factor theory of intelligence : idea that intelligence consists of distinct dimensions and is not just a single factor. He administered 56 different tests to college students, concluded that human intelligence consists of seven factors: verbal comprehension , number ability , word fluency , spatial visualization , associative memory , reasoning , perceptual speed . Raymond Cattell proposes notion of fluid and crystallized intelligence .

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