Art_History_42C_(week_3) - Kamakura Sculpture(1185-1333...

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Kamakura Sculpture (1185-1333) ● Kamakura Age of the warrior Went from a system that focused on the emperor and aristocracy and then in this period they focused on the shogun (army) military power System of diarchy Two powers Continues about 700 years Samurai (culture of warrior) High regard for hardship Custom to violence Buddhism is now moved into the countryside into the lives of the common people ● Realism A judgement about representations Pieces of wood that look like something of the natural environment Often involves an assumption about truth But very difficult to assess the truth and much disagreement about it ALSO INVOLVES ILLUSIONISM Gives you an illusion that it is more than a piece of wood but that it has life and a spirit in it. ● Gyokugan Realistic technique for rendering eyes Zonai nonyuhin (objects deposited inside) Something that is not really realistic Since it involves putting objects inside bodies If the human body is supposed to have organs and bones, there is no such
things Stuffed animals in the body-cavities Anti-realistic concepts Fudo Myoo Involved in Esoteric Buddhism Deity that first arose in India Fudo Myoo (Heian Period, 9th Century) The garment on the body looks more flat and linear The eyes are carved in wood (almost blind) Can be due to the deterioration over time Fudo Myoo (Kamakura Period, 13th century) The clothing on the body is more 3 dimensional and voluminous The eyes are has more gloss Can see the pupils Close on three points GYOKUGAN Crystal Eye A. Japanese paper B. Bamboo nail Used to secure the lens (paper) and the wood C. Crystal The arms and fingers have more character of a human body The brows are furrowed and there are wrinkles on the forehead There are gilded bronze ornaments that are draped around the neck It is realistic because any human being can wear them around their neck Head of a Guardian King, Kamakura Period, 13th century Usually have eyes made with the technique gyokugan Gyokugan Type of realism Used for supernatural configurations
Depends on the lighting The reflectionancy of the crystal is different from that of wood Objects with gyokugan would be placed in a dark temple with small opening of lights Then the light will reflect on the object having the eyes shimmer Aizen Mandala, Late Heian Period, 12th century One of the wisdom kings like fudo myoo Category of deities that was introduced with the esoteric set Wisdom king of love (sexual) Mandala Not a finished art Iconography diagram Aizen Myoo, Kamakura Period, 14th century Decorated with lots of jewelry beads The body is red Sometimes he would be put on a throne/ platform Zenen, Jizo Bodhisattva, Kamakura Period, 13th century Has a shaved head that resemble the image of a monk The type of fabric that a high monk could wear was golden threads

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