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0 focus on warmer months 2007 45 2008 40 2009 35

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Unformatted text preview: ter (domestic water heating). Estimated Natural Gas Consumption Estimated m3/day 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Monthly Natural Gas Use vs Average Monthly Outdoor Air Temperature 20 2007 18 2008 16 2009 14 Monthly Natural Gas Use, m3/day 2011 12 2012 10 8 6 4 2 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Monthly Average Outdoor Air Temperature, °C 20 25 Monthly Natural Gas Use vs Average Monthly Outdoor Air Temperature 5.0 Focus on Warmer Months… 2007 4.5 2008 4.0 2009 3.5 Monthly Natural Gas Use, m3/day 2011 3.0 2012 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Monthly Average Outdoor Air Temperature, °C 22 23 24 “Ball-park estimate” for domestic hot water… If hot water energy use is assumed to be reasonably consistent all year… As a first estimate, typical natural gas use by the water heater is approx 1 m3/day (= 365 m3/year) Estimated Total Annual Natural Gas = 2,505 m3 Prelim Estimate for Water Heating = 365 m3 (15%) Prelim Estimated for Space Heating = 2,140 m3 (85%) First Estimate of Natural-Gas Uses… 2,505 m3 Natural Gas Meter 365 m3 2104 m3 Water Heater Furnace Electricity: • Many devices connected. Most used intermittently. Some used continuously (e.g. refrigerator, chest freezer). Estimated Electricity Consumption Estimated kWh/day 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Monthly Electricity Use vs Outdoor Air Temperature 25 20 Monthly Electricity Use, kWh/day 15 10 5 2006 2007 2008 2009 2011 2012 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Monthly Average Outdoor Air Temperature, °C 20 25 Preliminary “Household Energy Meter” Measurements Refrigerator 1.78 kWh consumed over 30 hrs (1.25 days). Average for measured period = 1.42 kWh/day If consumption stays about the same… 365 days x 1.42 kWh/day = 518 kWh/year (8.5% of electrical) Chest Freezer 0.77 kWh consumed over 20 hrs (0.833 days). Average for measured period = 0.92 kWh/day If consumption stays about the same… 365 days x 0.92 kWh/day = 336 kWh/year (5.5% of electrical) Developing Annual Energy Cost Breakdown… $41 Water Heating (8.8%) Refrigerator (3.3%) Chest Freezer (2.2%) $27 $110 Other Electrical (33.9%) $420 Space Heating (51.8%) $642 TOTAL = $1,240 Power-Vented Furnace Natural-Gas Supply Induced Draft Fan (with electric motor) Indoor Fan (with electric motor) Schematic Depiction of Furnace in the audited house Electricity Induced Draft Fan Motor Flue Outside hot air Combustion Air Intake Furnace Heat Exchanger Heat Indoor Fan Burner Motor Combustion Air Supply-Air Duct Furnace Filter Return-Air Duct cold air Natural Gas Electricity Furnace Electronics Building Energy Performance – Spring 2012 - Topic 4 - Aspects of Ontario Electrical Grid Operation Electricity Generation Consumption c Input Energy Transmission c Losses Losses c “Power” and “Energy” Joule Joule Watt = second = ∙ ∆ = ∙ Watts × seconds ENERGY power × time POWER energy time where power is constant in time where power varies with time Ontario Electric Grid - Generation Profiles from 2011 (Hourly Average Output) Sunday July 17 Monday July 18 Tuesday July 19 Wednesday July 20 Sunday May 15 Monday May 16 Tuesday May 17 Wednesday May 18 MW 12 AM 12 PM 12 AM 12 PM 12 AM 12 PM 12 AM 12 PM 12 AM Ontario Electric Grid - Generation Profiles from 2011 (Hourly Average Output) MW 12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM Monday July 18 8 PM 12 AM Ontario Electric Grid - Generation Profiles from 2011 Hourly Average Output -- Monday July 18 25000 20000 Other 15000 Wind MW Nat Gas Coal 10000 Hydro Nuclear 5000 0 12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM Monday July 18 8 PM 12 AM Ontario Electric Grid - Generation Profiles from 2011 Hourly Average -- Monday July 18 100% 90% 80% 70% Other Wind 60% % of Generation Mix 50% Nat Gas Coal 40% Hydro 30% Nuclear 20% 10% 0% 12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM Monday July 18 8 PM 12 AM Ontario Electric Grid - Generation Profiles from 2011 Hourly Average Output -- Monday May 15 25000 20000 Other 15000 Wind MW Nat Gas Coal 10000 Hydro Nuclear 5000 0 12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM Monday May 15 8 PM 12 AM Ontario Electric Grid - Generation Profiles from 2011 Hourly Average --Monday May 15 100% 90% 80% 70% Other Wind 60% Nat Gas 50% Coal 40% Hydro 30% Nuclear 20% 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM Monday May 15 8 PM 12 AM ONTARIO GRID DEMAND (HOURLY AVERAGE) – 2011 MW (Jan 1) Hour Number (Dec 31) ONTARIO GRID DEMAND (HOURLY AVERAGE) – 2010 MW (Jan 1) Hour Number (Chronological) (Dec 31) LOAD DURATION CURVE ONTARIO GRID DEMAND (HOURLY AVERAGE) – 2011 27500 2011 peak 25000 22500 20000 17500 MW 15000 12500 10000 7500 5000 2500 0 1 501 1001 1501 2001 2501 3001 3501 4001 4501 5001 5501 6001 6501 7001 7501 8001 8501 Hour Number (based on sorting by descending demand) 2011 peak LOAD DURATION CURVE ONTARIO GRID DEMAND (HOURLY AVERAGE) – 2011 MW Hour Number (based on sorting by descending demand) LOAD DURATION CURVE – MULTIPLE...
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2012 for the course ME 760 taught by Professor Davidmather during the Spring '12 term at Waterloo.

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