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Unformatted text preview: YEARS ONTARIO GRID DEMAND (HOURLY AVERAGE) MW Hour Number (based on sorting by descending demand) ONTARIO SUMMER WEEKDAY RESIDENTIAL TIME-OF-USE ELECTRICITY PRICES on-peak $0.117/kWh mid-peak $0.10/kWh cost per kWh off-peak $0.065/kWh midnight mid-peak $0.10/kWh off-peak $0.065/kWh 7 AM 11 AM 5 PM 7 PM midnight LOAD DURATION CURVE peak load (required capacity?) load variation (sorted) range of variation power area under curve = total energy minimum load time input generic energy conversion device capacity losses/waste output load (demand) efficiency output input = efficiency typical definition of efficiency LOAD DURATION CURVE ONTARIO GRID DEMAND (HOURLY AVERAGE) – 2011 MW Hour Number (based on sorting by descending demand) losses/waste input PP-5 output capacity = 5000 MW losses/waste input PP-4 output capacity = 5000 MW losses/waste input PP-3 GRID capacity = 5000 MW losses/waste input PP-2 output capacity = 5000 MW losses/waste input PP-1 demand output output capacity = 5000 MW PP-5 PP-4 PP-3 MW PP-2 PP-1 Hour Number (based on sorting by descending demand) ASIDE: Hourly Heating Loads from an Energy Simulation for a Particular Building 500 450 400 350 300 Load (MBH) 250 200 150 100 Summer heating system shutdown 50 0 1 1001 2001 3001 4001 Hour 5001 6001 7001 8001 Heating Load Duration Curve: 500 500 450 450 400 400 350 peak 300 350 250 300 Load (MBH) 200 150 250 100 50 200 0 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 150 100 50 0 1 1001 2001 3001 4001 5001 6001 7001 8001 Hour (End of Aside.) flue input output Boiler-4 capacity = 100 MBH flue input output Boiler-3 capacity = 100 MBH flue input output Boiler-2 capacity = 100 MBH flue input Boiler-1 output capacity = 100 MBH BUILDING HYDRONIC HEATING LOOP heat demand Building Energy Performance – Spring 2012 - Topic 5 - Aspects of Interior Lighting Systems US Commercial Building Data for 2006 Primary Energy End-Use Splits (approximate) From US DOE “2009 Buildings Energy Data Book” “Light” • “Visually evaluated radiant energy” (electromagnetic waves/photons) • Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to the human eye “Luminous Flux” • Quantity of light emitted per second by a light source • Unit of measurement = “lumen” (lm) lumens “Luminous Flux Density” • Luminous flux per unit area at a point on a surface • Also known as the “Illuminance” or “Lighting Level” • Units of measurement: SI: “lux” (lx) 1 lx = 1 lm / m2 IP: “foot candle” (fc) 1 fc = 1 lm / ft2 Conversion: 1 fc = 10.76 lx Recommended Illuminance Levels The “Illuminating Engineering Society of North America” (IESNA) publishes tables of recommended illuminance levels for different tasks. Sample Recommended Lighting Levels from the 9th Edition of the “IESNA Lighting Handbook” Category Type of Visual Task fc lux Example Space/Task A Tasks occasionally performed 3 30 Parking Garage B Simple orientation/short visits 5 50 Corridor C Working spaces/simples tasks 10 100 Restaurant dining D High contrast/large size 30 300 Office (general) E High contrast/small size 50 500 Reading/writing F Low contrast/small size 100 1,000 Manual drafting G Near visual threshold 300 1,000 3,000 10,000 Operating Room “Lamp” • electric source of light • aka “bulb” or “tube” “Luminaire” A lighting unit typically consists of a lamp (or lamps), ballast (for gas discharge lamps), fixture or housing, internal wiring and sockets, diffuser (louver or lens). fluorescent lamp ballast louver diffuser some “luminaires” lens “Luminous Efficacy” • The ratio of the light output (lumens) to the power input (watts) • Measured in lumens per watt (lm/W) watts efficacy = lumens watts lumens Typical Efficacy of Various Lamp Types lumens/watt 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 Incandescent Mercury Vapor LED Fluorescent Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium “golden-white” “monochromatic-yellow” Low Pressure Sodium Typical Impact of Efficacy… 6 W as “lumens” (≈10% of input power) Incandescent Lamp - 60 W 54 W as heat (non-visible radiant + convective) + 6 W as “lumens” (≈40% of input power) Fluorescent Lamp - 15 W + 9 W as heat (non-visible radiant + convective) Fluorescent Lighting Electric current passes through a gas produces ultraviolet radiation, which is then converted into visible radiation by a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube. fluorescent lamp ballast The ballast provides the necessary starting and operating electrical conditions. (The ballast consumes some power.) Tubular Fluorescent • Widely used in commercial and institutional buildings. • There have been significant improvements in the energy efficiency of these systems in recent decades. Tubular Fluorescent Lamps Older technology, Lower efficacy (older installations) Newer technology, Higher efficacy (newer installations) Fluorescent tube lamp designations: “F32T8” lamp diameter (e.g. T12 = 12/8”, T8 = 8/8”, T5 = 5/8”) lamp nominal wattage (not including ballast effect) (e.g 25 W, 32W, 40 W) Fluorescent Ballasts Older technology, Lower efficiency (older installations) Magnetic Ballast Newer technology, Higher efficiency (newer installations) Electronic Ballast Example ballast impact: Typical fixture with two 32 W T8 lamps...
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