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Unformatted text preview: Analysis • Determine general building characteristics (size, use). • Summarize utility bills for several years to estimate typical annual use of each fuel type (e.g. electricity, natural gas). • Compare the building’s energy use to an appropriate benchmark. Level I – Walk-Through Analysis • Visit the facility to become familiar with it’s construction, equipment, operation, etc. • Perform rough estimate to determine approximate breakdown of energy end uses. • Suggest low-cost/no-cost changes that could improve performance. • Suggest potential capital improvements for further study/assessment. Level II – Energy Survey and Engineering Analysis • Detailed review performance. of building & equipment • Detailed analysis of potential modifications: estimate energy cost savings & cost to implement. • Financial evaluation of options considered. Level III – Detailed Analysis of Capital-Intensive Modifications • Similar to Level II, but may include schematic design of modifications and detailed study of costs and savings. Case Study: Preliminary Steps in an Energy Assessment performed on a particular single-family home • Single-family home in Kitchener • Two-storey with basement, plus onestorey slab-on-grade addition • Original house is approx 90 years old (161 m2, including basement) • Addition is approx 30 years old (54 m2) • Detached garage and shed (electric service to both, but neither is heated or cooled) • Presently occupied by family of 4 • Exterior views • “Modest” window area Some General Details • Natural-gas forced-air furnace and natural-gas water-heater. Both are reasonably new (< 10 years old), and both are “power vented”. No other natural gas use in home (e.g. stove, clothes dryer). water-heater furnace Some General Details • Electric central air-conditioning (< 10 years old). • Lighting: Interior lamps are mostly lamps, compact but fluorescent some are incandescent. There are a few exterior (outdoor) lamps, but they are used sparingly. AC condenser unit General Details (cont’d) • Major Appliances −electric oven/stove −refrigerator (“EnergyStar”) −small chest freezer −front-loading clothes washer (“EnergyStar”) −electric clothes-dryer −dehumidifier in basement (“EnergyStar”) −dishwasher (“EnergyStar”) • Occupant Behavior: self-characterized as “energy conscious” clothes washer/dryer dehumidifier Utility Bill Analysis Historical Electricity Usage by Month 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Estimated Monthly Electricity, kWh/day 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Historical Natural Gas Usage by Month 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Estimated Monthly Natural Gas, m3/day 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Historical Trend in Monthly Average Outdoor Temperature (from University of Waterloo Weather Station) 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 Observed Climate Normal -15 Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Monthly Average Outdoor Air Temperature °C 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Overview of Energy Use Data from Utility Bill Analysis Estimated Monthly Electricity, kWh/day 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 20 Estimated 15 Monthly Natural Gas, 10 m3/day 5 0 Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr 25 20 Monthly 15 Average 10 Outdoor Air 5 0 Temp., °C -5 -10 -15 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 59 days, 995.00 kWh 61 days, 1040.32 kWh Monthly Electricity, kWh 700 600 500 400 300 By Year 200 100 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May 2007 Jun 2008 Jul Aug 2009 2011 700 Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual Total = 6100 kWh 600 500 Multi-Year Average 400 300 200 100 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Monthly Natural Gas, m3 600 500 400 By Year 300 200 100 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr 2007 May 2008 Jun Jul 2009 Aug 2011 Sep Oct Nov Dec 2012 600 Annual Total = 2505 m3 500 Multi-Year Average 400 300 200 100 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Estimated Monthly Energy Costs (“Variable Costs” Only) $200 Annual Total: $1,240 $180 $160 $140 $120 Natural Gas $100 Electricity $80 $60 $40 $20 $0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Assumed Energy Costs: Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Electricity = $0.08 / kWh Natural Gas = $0.30 / m3 Estimated Annual Energy Breakdown Energy Units (ekWh) Natural Gas 25,880 ekWh Electricity 6,100 kWh Energy Cost Natural Gas $751 Electricity $488 19% 39% 81% Annual Total: 31,980 ekWh 61% Annual Total: $1,240 Benchmarking: Performance vs Other Audited Houses (Fall Term, 2011) $900 $800 Assumed Energy Costs: Electricity = $0.08 / kWh Natural Gas = $0.30 / m3 $700 $600 Annual Energy Cost per Occupant $500 $400 $300 $200 $100 $0 $0 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 Annual Energy Cost Index ($/m2) $7 $8 $9 $10 Next Steps? Attempt to estimate breakdown of annual totals into specific uses. • Look for trends in Natural Gas and Electricity use to see if any preliminary estimates can be made. • Use household wattmeter to estimate annual energy for certain appliances. Natural Gas: • Only equipment connected to natural gas are the furnace (space heating) and water hea...
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2012 for the course ME 760 taught by Professor Davidmather during the Spring '12 term at Waterloo.

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