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What is different about those buildings from typical

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Unformatted text preview: erformance – e.g. in an energy audit • Client Motivator – e.g. avoid being the worst; strive to be a high performer (e.g. “green building”) • Priority Setting – Which buildings in a group are the “worst”? (highest potential for improvement?) • Learning from success – What is achieved by the “best” buildings? What is different about those buildings from typical? • Simulation Results Critiquing (“Gut-Check”) – are a set of simulated results reasonable? • Performance Tracking — Is recent performance consistent with historical performance? If not, what has changed? If an upgrade has been made—did it work? 2008 Comparison of 400 Canadian Elementary and High Schools (“weather-normalized” to Toronto, ON) “top 20” average ≈ 12 “High Performers” median 20.7 highest intensity ≈ 41 0 10 20 30 40 “High Potential” 50 Site-Energy Intensity, ekWh/ft2/year Reference: “Saving Our Energy for Education”, The Enerlife 2008 List of Top Energy Performing Schools News release by Enerlife Consulting, Toronto, Ontario, May 2010. www.enerlife.com Potentially Useful Public Data Sources: (Note: Take care in data interpretation!) • Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) “Comprehensive Energy Use Database” • US Department of Energy (DOE) “Building Energy Data Book” • US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “EnergyStar for Buildings - Portfolio Manager” Sample Data: NRCan “Comprehensive Energy Use Database” Residential Sector, Ontario, “Single Detached Homes” 2006 2007 2008 2009 End-Use Shares (%) Space Heating Water Heating Appliances Lighting Space Cooling 64.0 16.8 10.9 4.4 3.9 66.8 16.0 9.7 3.8 3.7 67.3 15.7 10.4 4.0 2.7 67.1 15.6 11.1 4.1 2.1 Total Site-Energy Intensity GJ/m2 0.792 0.831 0.837 0.774 ekWh/m2 [Note 1] 220 231 233 215 (Note 1: Values calculated from table data. 1 GJ = 277.8 ekWh) Sample Data: US DOE “Building Energy Data Book” Commercial Buildings: Site Energy-Use Intensity Estimates (2003) Commercial Average 91 Public Order and Safety End-Use Breakout for “Office” Category 116 Religious Worship 44 Service End-Use 77 Space Heating Cooling Food Service 258 Warehousing and Storage 45 Lodging 100 Health Care 188 Education 83 Mercantile 91 Office 93 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Site Energy Use Intensity, kbtu/ft2 5.2 Water Heating 2.0 23.1 Cooking 94 8.9 Ventilation 200 32.8 Lighting Food Sales Public Assembly kbtu/ft2 0.3 Refrigeration 2.9 Office Equipment 2.6 Computers 6.1 Other 9.0 Total 93 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EnergyStar for Buildings “Portfolio Manager” & “Target Finder” • Performance rating relative to other buildings in category, and based on certain specific important characteristics • Extensive database of carefully-checked performance data • 15 building type categories, including: o o o o o o o Office K-12 School Hotel Residence Hall/Dormitory Retail Store Supermarket Warehouse (refrigerated and non-refrigerated) “EnergyStar Rating” – gives building a ranking between 1 and 100 (1 is worst; 100 is best) high Annual Energy Use Intensity low 50 75 100 EnergyStar Rating Note: “LEED for Existing Buildings Operations & Maintenance” Minimum acceptable energy performance requirement is EnergyStar rating of 70 or higher. Building Energy Performance – Spring 2012 - Topic 3 - Aspects of Building Energy Auditing Energy Auditing • A tool for providing information about the energy performance of a building to inform decisionmaking about potential improvements. • Process will typically involve becoming sufficiently familiar with the building to be able to make a general assessment of reasons why it uses the amount of energy that it does, and potentially suggest how the performance might be improved. • Specific process will be highly dependent on the type & complexity of the building, and objectives of the owner (e.g. reduce energy cost; reduce environmental impact). Generic guidelines for energy audits are available. However, these typically only give very general guidance and depending on the “level” of audit will describe only: • Type of information typically needed and type of activities typically performed • Objectives (deliverables) of the analysis For example: • Natural Resources Canada “Federal Buildings Initiative: Audit Standards Guidelines” • ASHRAE “Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits” Both documents (NRCan and ASHRAE) describe different “levels” of an energy audit. Each successive level builds upon the results of the previous level and increases in detail and complexity. General Progression of a typical Energy Audit based on the ASHRAE Guideline document: • Preliminary Energy Use Analysis • Level I Analysis – Walk-Through Analysis • Level II Analysis – Energy Survey and Analysis • Level II Analysis – Detailed Analysis of Capital Intensive Measures Progression of typical audit based on ASHRAE guideline: Preliminary Energy Use...
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