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G ontario building code objectives safety eg fire

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Unformatted text preview: use can be similar TERMINOLOGY (cont’d) “BUILDING CODE” e.g “Ontario Building Code” Objectives: • Safety (e.g. fire, structural, security) • Health (e.g. indoor conditions, sanitation, noise) • Accessibility (e.g. barrier free path) • Protection (e.g. fire, structural) • Resource Conservation (e.g. water, energy) “ASHRAE” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy Codes and Standards for Buildings “ASHRAE 90.1” “MNECB” = Model National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings, 1997 “GREEN BUILDING” “SUSTAINABLE” “Green Building” Rating Systems “LEED” = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design “GREEN GLOBES” LEED Canada New Construction (version 1.0) Points Categories: Points Available Category Sustainable Sites 14 Water Efficiency 5 Energy & Atmosphere 17 Materials & Resources 14 Indoor Environmental Quality 15 Innovation & Design Process 5 Total 70 Certification Levels: Level Points Needed Certified 26-32 Silver 33-38 Gold 39-51 Platinum 52-70 MORE TERMINOLOGY “NET ZERO” “CARBON NEUTRAL” “OFF-GRID” “GREEN BUILDING” “SUSTAINABLE” “REGENERATIVE” “RESTORATIVE” Challenges in dealing with environmental (and other) impacts of buildings?? Approximately 1/3rd of North American GHG Emissions Approximately 1/3rd of North American GHG Emissions Lifetime of Commercial Buildings… • In U.S., average is approximately 70-75 years HIGHRISE OFFICE TOWER Opened May 1, 1931 (81 years old) Photo taken during construction… Photo: Public domain, Wikimedia Commons, May 2012 Photo: Ad Meskins, Wikimedia Commons, May 2012 Closer view of the façade… Original Photo: Lechhansl, Wikimedia Commons, May 2012. HIGHRISE OFFICE TOWER Opened October 1, 2009 (2.5 years old) Closer view of the façade… Original Photo: D. Mather Original Photo: “guido_ch” Wikimedia Commons, May 2012 ASIDE: Approximate Thermal Resistance of Glazing Systems? Single-Glazed “air-film” resistance Conventional Double-Glazed “High-Performance” Double-Glazed argonfilled cavities airfilled cavity “low-e” coating (e = 0.10) “air-film” resistance ≈ . “High-Performance” Triple-Glazed ≈ . ≈ . Representative “center-of-glass” effective U-values, ⁄ ∙ ≈ . (End of Aside.) Empire State Building (81 years old) RBC Centre (2.5 years old) VS Original Photo: “BoNoMaR”, Wikimedia Commons, May 2012 Original Photo: “guido_ch”, Wikimedia Commons, May 2012 “Older-Style” High-Rise Residential (Ontario) Photo: D. Mather Photo: D. Mather Toronto “Mayor’s Tower Renewal Program” • Concrete-slab apartment tower built between 1950’s to 1980’s • Many are poorly insulated and leaky • Many have heating systems that are inefficient relative to modern standards. Some use electric resistance heating (expensive heat source). • For some, energy bills are very expensive; can contribute to economic hardship for tenants • Program started to improve these towers during term of former Mayor David Miller Photo: D. Mather Balcony slab penetration Exterior Interior Modern High-Rise Residential Photo: D. Mather Photo: D. Mather “Window Wall” Slab Similar to Curtainwall, but mounted on floor-slab (and fastened to slab above). Slab Exterior Interior Slab Window Wall with balcony slab penetration Exterior Interior “Old” High-rise Residential New High-rise Residential VS Other challenges? • Disconnect between capital cost (construction cost) and operating cost • Lack of design time (and budget) • “No two buildings are the same” - medical analogy? • Retrofitting: can be expensive, time-consuming, disruptive • Fluctuations in energy prices? • Others? Building Energy Performance – Spring 2012 - Topic 2 - Aspects of Building Energy Performance Benchmarking Initial Steps in a Typical Energy Audit * • Determine general building characteristics (e.g. size, use). • Summarize utility bills for several years to estimate typical annual use of each fuel type. • Compare the building’s performance to an appropriate benchmark. * Energy Audit Guideline/Reference Documents: 1. ASHRAE Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits, “Preliminary Energy Use Analysis” 2. NRCan Audit Standard Guidelines, “Yardstick Audit” Consider: An office building in Waterloo, ON • Total floor area = 50,000 ft2 • Natural gas consumption = 70,000 m3/year • Electricity consumption = 4,800,000 kWh/year Questions: • Is this performance good? poor? average? • Does this building have much potential for improvement? (Other questions?) “Benchmarking” = comparison of performance to suitable reference-points Options? • Individual similar building • Group of similar buildings Public datasources/databases • “High Performing” similar buildings • Past performance of the building being analyzed • Simulated building e.g. monitoring changes in performance diagnosis tool Potential Uses of Benchmarking? • Basic Characterization of P...
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