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Midterm 1 - 1 How has domestic and international trade...

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1) How has domestic and international trade impacted the environmental geography of 3 regions? Brief intro about trade: thanks to globalization, trade has increased for countries to earn more money and to gain relationships with other countries. However, trade can im- pact environment significantly. North America: Both US and Canada are very active on the international trade market Both import diverse products from many global sources. Canada imports large quantities of manufactured parts from the US The US imports large quantities raw materials (grain, energy, metals, wood) For Canada, export mainly raw materials --> Deforestation. Deforestation leads to greenhouse gases, soil erosion, landslides. US- manufactured goods factories needed --> deforestation, similar risks as Canada fossil fuels emitted in the atmosphere: air pollution, acid rain (eastern US and Canada) factories: waste (areas outside major cities), groundwater depletion (Central, west US). Latin America Main: Deforestation: Amazon, Mexico, and Costa Rica Causes: Livestock pasture: McDonalds and soybean production (soy industry is principal source of foreign currency for Brazil). Most of Latin America’s exports are crops --> depleted farmlands --> increased aridity and soil erosion (from deforestation) --> less agricultural productivity. Also: Air pollution has become serious issue in Sao Paulo and Mexico City (indus- trialization and factories). Caribbean Trade has shifted from agricultural products such as bananas, coffee, sugar cane etc. to tourism (which is a form of imports). The specialization of agricultural products led to large scale deforestation of Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Large scale tourism in the 90s led to overcrowded beaches, and large scale infra- structure improvements, again leading to deforestation but also a lot of coastal pol- lution in Cuba, Haiti,and Puerto Rico
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2) How does urban form vary across the three regions? To what extent does urban forms reflect the respective histories of the regions? Intro: urban sectors are major sources of money for regions. Past North America and Latin America have similar urban structures that match the core-periphery model (with differences in present-day North America), whereas the urban form in the Caribbean varies vastly from the regions of North America and Latin America. North America: Originally, North America was made up of a few large cities (New York, Chicago, Los Angeles). However, changing transportation technologies shaped the evolution of a city in the US. Cities grew from a 3-4 mile diameter to about 5-10 miles with the emergence of the electric streetcar (mass transit at about 15-20 mph) The widespread adoption of the car extended cities even further into the sub- urbs approx. 40-60 miles from downtown.
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