Study Guide - SHORT IDS Balkanization, Balkans, Balkanism...

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SHORT IDSBalkanization, Balkans, BalkanismBalkans= peninsula bounded by the Adriatic, Agean, and Black Seas, specifically withallusions to the relationships, often hostile, of the Balkan states to each other or to the restof Europe. OED/ etymology= Turkish word meaning ‘a chain of wooded mountains’ or‘stone, cliff’Balkanize= to divide into a number of smaller and often mutually hostile unites as doneto Balkan peninsula OEDALL NEGATIVE CONNOTATIONSBalkan WarsThe wars deprived the ottoman empire of most of remaining territory in europeFirst: 1912. Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro formed Balkan league with theobject of freeing Macedonia from ottoman control. Turks lost and lost a lot of territorySecond: 1913. Peace of London awarded Bulgaria largest share of territory under disputewhich led to second war. Bulgaria fought to retain its possessions against Serbia, Greeceand Montenegro.1913 treaty of Bucharest divided Macedonia among Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. OnlyGreece was satisfied.MilletMillet v. nation: identity solely on religion (millet), not ethnicity (nation). Territory wasnot a factor as it was in nation. Led to multi-ethnic, multilingual populations throughoutthe Balkans. Were composed of individuals who spoke different languages and who haddifferent ethnicities. Islam Millet and then 3 main non-Muslim millets: orthodoxChristian, jews, Armenian Christians. Rights to religious beliefs, languages, and seculartraditions. Prestige language did form but ottoman empire did not make others give uptheir languages which allowed local languages to flourish.1454 orthodox Christian millet- divided along language: Greek and Slavic members.Other millets: 1461 Armenian Christian millet (administrative responsibility for all non-orthodox Christians)1839- officially founded Jewish millet butOttoman Empire500 years of Ottoman Empire1453 Constantinople is captured by Ottoman Turks. Ottomans gain control of much of theBalkan territory.The prestige language was Osmanli Turkish (heavily influenced byPersian and Arabic). On individual level there was multilingualism- linguistic varieties ofreligion, local, merchants, education and official. Resulted in much language contact(Balkan Sprachbund). Millet system- identity through religion. Islam’s tolerance towardsother religions explains origins of millet. Faith gave to different alphabets. Prestigelanguage did form but ottoman empire did not make others give up their languages whichallowed local languages to flourish.Break up caused by national uprisings and revolts again Ottomans in various regions, ledto establishment of new multi-national multilingual states.

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Term
Winter
Professor
ElisabethElliott

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