STUDYGUIDE 2 Second Postmodernism - Arch 214 B Lecture 7 America Chicago and Wright Tuesday Chicago Fire of 1871 forced reexamination of how buildings

STUDYGUIDE 2 Second Postmodernism - Arch 214 B Lecture 7...

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Chicago Fire of 1871 - forced reexamination of how buildings were built - rush was on to create buildings that would not burn as quickly - NY and Chicago were in competition to develop solutions to fireproofing buildings - steel, which does not combust but fails in excessively high temperatures, could be wrapped in fireproof material to prolong period before structural failure - tile arches (shallow) between columns show fireproofing of steel members - fire codes and building insurance developed at this time - halted the American advance west -- a national trauma - a huge amount of the city was burned - Otis elevator with counterweight system was invented, and has not fundamentally changed to this day William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907) - terra-cotta tile between girders - insurance rating for buildings - insurance companies would underwrite buildings and banks would loan money - conflux of steel, elevator, glass in larger sheets led to taller, lighter buildings - Leiter Building 1883 - similarities with Renaissance palazzo and Marshall Field Warehouse Bldg. - whole city block - massive, but without the rustication, defensive aspect - Home Insurance Building 1885 - masonry replaced wood - steel girders replaced beams - asbestos wrapper for fireproofing James Bogardus - engineer and architect - Bruce Building, New York City, 1854 - earlier than Jenney, but not as sophisticated or tall - steel melts at around 1250 Fahrenheit - terra cotta arches between girders - insulate steel from heat. - Very shallow and not really visible World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 - leading edge of American growth west - the next largest expo after Crystal Palace Expo - 1876 centennial in Philadelphia was not as big as this - Wright and Loos visited Arch 214 B Tuesday, September 21, 2010 Lecture 7: America: Chicago and Wright
- Organized by Daniel Burnham, who wanted an American national Classical style, based on Jefferson, Lincoln Memorial, etc., but was regressive, not progressive. - called the “White City” and made of stucco, wood, canvas and paint. Burnham and Root - Daniel Burnham, a developer and visionary and John Root, and engineer - Burnham created the plan for Chicago - Monadnock Building, Chicago, 1892 - entirely made of brick, 6-8’ wide at the base and 2-3’ wide at the top - no steel lintels therefore small windows - the last breath of the bearing wall building - note: this is the same time as Wagner’s Postsparkasse in Vienna - Reliance Building , Chicago, 1890-95 - started earlier than Monadnock and finished later - ingenious arches spanned on beam flanges, so a wood floor would burn but the building would not collapse - the first steel light frame building - frame rationalized finally to the point of replicability - The Chicago School, as well as modern architecture, owes a great debt to engineering and detailing, which accounts for the rapid transition in building technology during this period - The Rookery , Chicago, 1888 - less impressive exterior - courtyard like Wagner’s Postsparkasse - covered with a steel framed glass roof - LA’s Bradbury Building uses the same cast iron, steel, marble, etc.

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