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•Chicago Fire of 1871- forced reexamination of how buildings were built- rush was on to create buildings that would not burn as quickly- NY and Chicago were in competition to develop solutions to fireproofing buildings- steel, which does not combust but fails in excessively high temperatures, could be wrapped in fireproof material to prolong period before structural failure - tile arches (shallow) between columns show fireproofing of steel members- fire codes and building insurance developed at this time- halted the American advance west -- a national trauma- a huge amount of the city was burned- Otis elevator with counterweight system was invented, and has not fundamentally changed to this day•William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907)- terra-cotta tile between girders- insurance rating for buildings- insurance companies would underwrite buildings and banks would loan money- conflux of steel, elevator, glass in larger sheets led to taller, lighter buildings- Leiter Building 1883- similarities with Renaissance palazzo and Marshall Field Warehouse Bldg.- whole city block- massive, but without the rustication, defensive aspect- Home Insurance Building 1885- masonry replaced wood- steel girders replaced beams- asbestos wrapper for fireproofing•James Bogardus- engineer and architect- Bruce Building, New York City, 1854- earlier than Jenney, but not as sophisticated or tall- steel melts at around 1250 Fahrenheit- terra cotta arches between girders - insulate steel from heat. - Very shallow and not really visible•World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893- leading edge of American growth west- the next largest expo after Crystal Palace Expo- 1876 centennial in Philadelphia was not as big as this- Wright and Loos visitedArch 214 B Tuesday, September 21, 2010Lecture 7: America: Chicago and Wright
- Organized by Daniel Burnham, who wanted an American national Classical style, based on Jefferson, Lincoln Memorial, etc., but was regressive, not progressive.- called the “White City” and made of stucco, wood, canvas and paint.•Burnham and Root- Daniel Burnham, a developer and visionary and John Root, and engineer- Burnham created the plan for Chicago- Monadnock Building, Chicago, 1892-entirely made of brick, 6-8’ wide at the base and 2-3’ wide at the top-no steel lintels therefore small windows-the last breath of the bearing wall building-note: this is the same time as Wagner’s Postsparkassein Vienna- Reliance Building, Chicago, 1890-95-started earlier than Monadnock and finished later-ingenious arches spanned on beam flanges, so a wood floor would burn but the building would not collapse-the first steel light frame building-frame rationalized finally to the point of replicability-The Chicago School, as well as modern architecture, owes a great debt to engineering and detailing, which accounts for the rapid transition in building technology during this period- The Rookery, Chicago, 1888-less impressive exterior-courtyard like Wagner’s Postsparkasse-covered with a steel framed glass roof-LA’s Bradbury Building uses the same cast iron, steel, marble, etc.