Encyclopedia Of The Age Of Imperialism 18001914 V12 2008 P969.pdf - Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism 1800\u20131914 Volumes 1 2 Edited by Carl

Encyclopedia Of The Age Of Imperialism 18001914 V12 2008 P969.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914, Volumes 1 & 2 Edited by Carl Cavanagh Hodge Greenwood Press ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM, 1800–1914 i ii ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM, 1800–1914 Volume 1 A–K Edited by Carl Cavanagh Hodge Greenwood Press Westport, Connecticut • London iii Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of the age of imperialism, 1800–1914 / edited by Carl Cavanagh Hodge. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–0–313–33404–7 (set : alk. paper)—ISBN 978–0–313–33406–1 (v.1 : alk. paper)—ISBN 978–0–313–33407–8 (v.2 : alk. paper) 1. History, Modern—19th century—Chronology—Encyclopedias. 2. Europe—History—1789–1900—Chronology— Encyclopedias. 3. Europe—History—1871–1918—Chronology—Encyclopedias. 4. Great powers—History—19th century—Chronology—Encyclopedias. 5. Great powers—History—20th century—Chronology—Encyclopedias. I. Hodge, Carl Cavanagh. D358.E45 2008 909.8103—dc22 2007026483 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 2008 by Carl Cavanagh Hodge All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007026483 ISBN-13: 978–0–313–33404–7 (set) 978–0–313–33406–1 (vol 1) 978–0–313–33407–8 (vol 2) First published in 2008 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Every reasonable effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright materials in this book, but in some instances this has proven impossible. The editor and publisher will be glad to receive information leading to a more complete acknowledgments in subsequent printings of the book and in the meantime extend their apologies for any omissions. iv To Jane, the best of friends, Easter 2007 v vi CONTENTS Volume 1 List of Entries ix List of Primary Documents xix Guide to Related Topics xxi Preface xxxi Acknowledgments xxxiii Introduction xxxv Maps lvii Chronology for the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914 The Encyclopedia, A-K lxxi 1 Volume 2 List of Entries ix List of Primary Documents xix Guide to Related Topics xxi Maps lvii The Encyclopedia, L-Z 409 Primary Documents 765 Selected Bibliography 813 About the Editor and Contributors 833 Index 845 vii viii LIST OF ENTRIES ABC Powers Abd-al-Q¯adir (1808–1883) Abensberg, Battle of (1809) Aborigines Aboukir Bay, Battle of (1798) Abyssinia Achinese War (1873–1907) Action Française Act of Union (1801) Acton, Lord John (1834–1902) Adams, John (1735–1826) Adams, John Quincy (1767–1848) Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) Adowa, Battle of (1896) Adrianople, Treaty of (1829) Aehrenthal, Aloys Lexa von (1854–1912) Afghanistan Afghan Wars (1838–1842, 1878–1880) Africa, Scramble for Afrikaners Agadir Crisis (1911) Aigun, Treaty of (1858) Aix-la-Chapelle, Congress of (1818) Alabama Dispute (1871–1872) Alamo, Battle of (1836) Åland Islands Alaskan Boundary Dispute (1896–1903) Alaska Purchase Treaty (1867) Albania Albrecht Friedrich Rudolf, Archduke (1817–1895) Alexander, King of Yugoslavia (1888–1934) Alexander I, Tsar of Russia (1777–1825) Alexander II, Tsar of Russia (1818–1881) Alexander III, Tsar of Russia (1845–1894) Algeciras Conference (1906) Algeria Aliwal, Battle of (1846) Alsace-Lorraine American Civil War (1861–1865) Amiens, Treaty of (1802) Amundsen, Roald (1872–1928) Anarchism Andijan Revolt (1898) Andrássy, Gyula, Count (1823–1890) Anglo-American Treaty (1818) Anglo-American War (1812–1815) Anglo-Burmese Wars (1824–1826, 1852, 1885) Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902, 1905) Anglo-Nepal War (1814–1816) Anglo-Russian Convention (1907) Angola Annam Annexation Crisis (1908–1909) Antarctica Anti-Corn Law League Antietam, Battle of (1862) Arctic Argentina Armed Neutrality, League of Armenia Armenian Massacres (1894–1896) Arrah, Siege of (1857) Arrow War (1856–1860) Artigas, José Gervasio (1794–1850) ix x List of Entries Ashanti Wars Aspern-Essling, Battle of (1809) Asquith, Herbert Henry, Earl of Oxford and Asquith (1852–1928) Assaye, Battle of (1803) Association Internationale Africaine Atlanta Campaign (1864) Ausgleich (1867) Austerlitz, Battle of (1805) Australia Australian Colonies Government Act (1850) Australian Commonwealth (1900) Australian Frontier Wars (1788–1928) Australian-German Relations Australian-Japanese Relations Austria-Hungary Austrian Empire Austro-Prussian War (1866) Badli-ke-Serai, Battle of (1857) Bagehot, Walter (1826–1877) Bailén, Battle of (1808) Bakunin, Mikhail (1814–1876) Balaklava, Battle of (1854) Balance of Power Balfour, Arthur J. (1848–1930) Balkan Crises (1875–1878, 1908–1913) Balkan League (1912) Balkan Wars (1912–1913) Barbary States Bashi-Bazouks Bassein, Treaty of (1802) Basutoland Bates Agreement (1899–1904) Bavaria Bechuanaland Beck-Rzikowsky, Friedrich (1830–1920) Beijing, Conventions of (1860) Belgian Congo Belgium Belle Époque Bengal Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832) Bentinck, Lord William (1774–1839) Beresina, Battles of (1812) Berlin-Baghdad Railway Berlin Conference (1884–1885) Berlin, Congress of (1878) Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von (1856– 1921) Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold von (1815– 1898) Björkö, Treaty of (1905) Black Hand Blood River, Battle of (1838) Blücher, Gebhard von (1742–1819) Boer Wars (1880–1881, 1899–1902) Bohemia Bolívar, Simón (1783–1830) Bolsheviks Bonaparte, Joseph (1768–1844) Bonaparte, Louis (1778–1846) Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon (1808–1873) Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769–1821) Bonapartism Bond of 1844 Borodino, Battle of (1812) Bosnia-Herzegovina Bosporus Botha, Louis (1862–1919) Boulanger, General Georges-Ernest (1837– 1891) Bourbon Dynasty (1589–1848) Boxer Insurrection (1900) Boxer Protocol (1901) Brazil Brazza, Pierre Paul Francois Camille Savorgnan de (1852–1905) Briand, Aristide (1862–1932) British Columbia British East African Protectorate British Empire British North America Act (1867) British South Africa Company Buena Vista, Battle of (1847) Bukhara Emirate Bulgaria Bülow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin Carl, Count von (1849–1929) Bundesrat Burke, Edmund (1729–1797) Burkersdorf, Battle of (1866) Burlingame Treaty (1868) Burma Burschenschaft Burton, Captain Sir Richard Francis (1821– 1890) Calcutta Caldiero, Second Battle of (1805) California Caliph Caliphate Cambodia List of Entries Cameroon Campbell, Sir Colin, Baron Clyde (1792– 1863) Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry (1836– 1908) Canada Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) Canning, George (1770–1827) Cape Colony Caprivi, Count Leo von (1831–1899) Cardwell, Edward, First Viscount Cardwell, (1813–1886) Carlist Wars (1833–1840, 1847–1849, 1872– 1876) Carlyle, Thomas (1795–1881) Carlsbad Decrees (1819) Casement, Sir Roger (1864–1916) Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount (1769–1823) Caucasus Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di (1810– 1861) Central Powers Ceylon Chamberlain, Joseph (1836–1914) Chancellorsville, Battle of (1863) Charles, Archduke of Austria (1771–1847) Charles X, King of France (1757–1836) Chattanooga, Battle of (1863) Chaumont, Treaty of (1814) Cherniaev, General Mikhail Gregor’evich (1828–1898) Chickamauga Creek, Battle of (1863) China Chrysanthemum Throne Churchill, Lord Randolph (1849–1894) Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874–1965) Clausewitz, Carl von (1780–1831) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850) Clemençeau, Georges (1841–1929) Cleveland, Grover (1837–1908) Cobden, Richard (1804–1865) Cochin China Colenso, Battle of (1899) Colons Colony Commonwealth Communism Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels, 1848) Comparative Advantage Concentration Camps Concordat of 1801 Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813) Congress System Conrad, Joseph (1857–1924) Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz (1852– 1925) Conscription Conservative Party Continental System Copenhagen, First Battle of (1801) Copenhagen, Second Battle of (1807) Corn Laws (1804, 1815) Corunna, Battle of (1809) Crete Crimean War (1853–1856) Croatia-Slavonia Cromer, Sir Evelyn Baring, First Earl of (1841–1917) Cuba Cuban Reciprocity Treaty (1902) Curzon, George Nathaniel, Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (1859–1925) Custoza, Battles of (1849, 1866) Cyprus Dalhousie, George Ramsay, Ninth Earl of Dalhousie (1770–1838) Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Ramsay, First Marquess of Dalhousie (1812–1860) Danish West Indies Danubian Principalities Dardanelles Darwin, Charles (1809–1882) David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825) Deák, Ferenc (1803–1876) Decembrists (1825) Delcassé, Théophile (1852–1923) Delhi, Battle of (1803) Delhi, Siege of (1857) Denmark Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, Fourteenth Earl of (1799–1869) Derby, Edward Henry Stanley, Fifteenth Earl of (1826–1893) Dernburg Reforms (1909–1910) De Valera, Eamon (1882–1975) Díaz, Porfirio (1830–1915) Dilke, Sir Charles (1843–1911) Disraeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield (1804–1881) xi xii List of Entries Dogger Bank Incident (1904) Dominion Dost Muhammad Khan (1793–1863) Dreadnought Dreikaiserbund (1873–1887) Dresden, Battle of (1813) Dreyfus Affair (1894–1906) Dual Alliance Durbar Durham, John George Lambton, First Earl of (1792–1840) Dutch East Indies Dvoˇrák, Antonín (1841–1904) Eastern Question East India Companies Eckmühl, Battle of (1809) Edward VII, King of Great Britain (1841– 1910) Egypt Elgar, Edward (1857–1934) Elgin, James Bruce, Eighth Earl of (1811– 1863) Elgin, Victor Alexander Bruce, Ninth Earl of (1849–1917) Ems Telegram (1870) Engels, Friedrich (1820–1895) Entente Cordiale (1904) Eritrea Ethiopia Extraterritoriality Eylau, Battle of (1807) Falkenhayn, Erich von (1861–1922) Far East Fashoda Incident (1898) Fenian Brotherhood Ferozeshah, Battle of (1845) Ferry, Jules François Camille (1832–1893) Fichte, Johann Gottieb (1762–1814) Filibuster Finland Fisher, John Arbuthnot, Lord Fisher (1841– 1920) Foch, Ferdinand (1851–1929) Fontane, Theodor (1819–1898) Foraker Amendment (1899) Fox, Charles James (1749–1806) Francia, José Gaspar Rodríguez de (1766– 1840) Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (1863–1914) Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria (1830– 1916) Franco-Italian Convention (1902) Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) Franco-Spanish Agreement (1904) Frankfurt Parliament (1848–1849) Frankfurt, Treaty of (1871) Fredericksburg, Battle of (1862) Freemasonry Free Trade French Empire French Equatorial Africa French Foreign Legion French Restoration (1814) French West Africa Gambetta, Léon (1838–1882) Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807–1882) Gaspirali, Ismail Bey (1851–1914) Geneva Convention (1864) George III, King of Great Britain (1738–1820) George IV, King of Great Britain (1762– 1830) George V, King of Great Britain and Emperor of India (1865–1936) German Confederation German East Africa German Empire German Southwest Africa Gettysburg, Battle of (1863) Gibraltar Giolitti, Giovanni (1842–1928) Gladstone, William Ewart (1809–1898) Globalization Gneisenau, August Wilhelm von (1760– 1831) Gold Coast Gold Coast, Exchanges of Forts on (1850, 1868) Gold Standard Gołuchowski, Agenor (1849–1921) Gorchakov, Alexander (1798–1883) Gordon, Charles George (1833–1885) Grant, Ulysses S. (1822–1885) Gravelotte-St. Privat, Battle of (1870) Great Exhibition (1851) Great Game Great Powers Great Trek (1863–1867) Great White Fleet Greece Grey, Charles, Second Earl Grey (1764–1845) Grey, Henry, Third Earl Grey (1802–1894) Grey, Sir Edward, First Viscount Grey of Fallodon (1862–1933) List of Entries Grey, Sir George (1812–1898) Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of (1848) Guatemala Guerrilla Guinea Guizot, François (1787–1874) Gujarat, Battle of (1849) Haakon VII, King of Norway (1872–1957) Habsburg Dynasty Habsburg Empire Hague Conferences (1899, 1907) Haig, Douglas (1861–1928) Haiti Haldane, Richard Burdon (1856–1928) Hamilton, Alexander (1755–1804) Haussmann, Baron George Eugène (1809– 1891) Hawaii Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903) Hay-Herrán Treaty (1903) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770– 1831) Heligoland, Battle of (1864) Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty (1890) Herero Revolt (1904–1907) Herzl, Theodor (1860–1904) Hesse-Cassel Hesse-Darmstadt Hindenburg, Paul von Beneckendorff und von (1847–1934) Hindustan Hobson, John Atkinson (1858–1940) Hohenlinden, Battle of (1800) Hohenzollern Dynasty Holy Alliance Home Rule Hong Kong Hudson’s Bay Company Huerta, José Victoriano (1854–1916) Hugo, Victor (1802–1885) Human Zoo Hungary Huskisson, William (1770–1830) Hyderabad Ibn Saud (1880–1953) Ibrahim Pasha (1789–1848) Iceland Immigration Restrictions Imperial Conferences Imperial Federation Imperialism Imperial Preference Impressionism India India Act (1858) Indian Mutiny (1857–1858) Indian Wars Indirect Rule Indochina Inkerman, Battle of (1854) Inkiar Skelessi, Treaty of (1833) Intelligence Internationalism International Law Ireland Irish Famine (1845–1850) Irish Land Acts (1870–1909) Irredentism Isandhlwana, Battle of (1879) Italo-Abyssinian War (1887–1896) Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) Italy It¯o, Hirobumi (1841–1909) Izvolsky, Alexander (1856–1919) Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845) Jadidism Jamaica Jameson Raid (1895) Janissaries Japanese Empire Java Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826) Jellicoe, John Rushworth (1859–1935) Jena, Battle of (1806) Jhansi, Siege of (1858) Jihad Jingoism John Bull July Crisis (1914) July Monarchy (1830–1848) July Revolution (1830) Junker Kaffir Wars (1781–1879) Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal Kálnoky, Gustav (1832–1898) Kanagawa, Treaty of (1854) Kandahar, Battle of (1880) Károlyi, Mihály Count (1875–1955) Kashmir Kasimov, Kenesary (1802–1847) Kaufman, Konstantin Petrovich von (1818– 1882) Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938) xiii xiv List of Entries Kemal, Mustapha (1880–1938) Kerensky, Alexander (1881–1970) Khalsa Khan, Emir Muhammad Alim (1880–1944) Khiva Khanate Kiaochow Kiel Kipling, Joseph Rudyard (1865–1936) Kitchener, Horatio Herbert, Lord (1850– 1916) Kittery Peace (1905) Königgrätz, Battle of (1866) Korea Krasnoi, Battles of (1812) Kruger, Stephanus Johannes Paulus (1825– 1904) Krupp, Alfred (1812–1887) Krupp, Friedrich (1787–1826) Kulturkampf Kunanbaev, Abai (1845–1904) Kwang-chow Wan Laibach, Congress of (1821) Lamartine, Alphonse de (1790–1869) Landshut, Battle of (1809) Laos Lapse Doctrine Laswari, Battle of (1803) Laurier, Sir Wilfrid (1841–1919) Leipzig, Battle of (1813) Lenin, Vladimir Il’ich (1870–1924) Lesseps, Ferdinand de (1805–1894) Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) Liaoyang, Battle of (1904) Liberal Imperialists Liberalism Liberal Party Liberal Unionist Party Liberation, War of (1813) Liberia Libya Ligny, Battle of (1815) Limited Liability Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865) Lissa, Battle of (1866) List, Friedrich (1789–1846) Liverpool, Charles Banks Jenkinson, Second Earl of (1770–1828) Livingstone, David (1813–1873) Lloyd George, David (1863–1945) Lobengula Khumalo (1833–1894) London Straits Convention (1841) London, Treaty of (1839) Louis XVIII (1755–1824) Louisiana Purchase (1803) Lucknow Residency, Siege of (1857) Lüderitz, Frans Adolf Eduard (1834–1886) Lugard, Frederick Dealtry, Baron Lugard of Abinger (1858–1945) Lunéville, Treaty of (1801) Luxemburg, Rosa (1871–1919) Macaulay, Thomas Babington, First Baron (1800–1859) Macdonald, Sir John A. (1815–1891) Macedonia Machine Gun Mackensen, August von (1849–1945) Mackinder, Sir Halford (1861–1947) MacMahon, Patrice Edmé Maurice (1808– 1893) Madagascar Madison, James (1751–1836) Madras Mafeking, Siege of (1899–1900) Magenta, Battle of (1859) Maghreb Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1840–1914) Mahdi Mahmud I (1696–1754) Mahmud II (1785–1839) Maji-Maji Rebellion (1905–1907) Malta Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834) Manchuria Manifest Destiny Manila Bay, Battle of (1898) Maori Wars (1843–1847, 1863–1870) Maratha Wars (1775–1782, 1803–1805, 1817–1818) Marengo, Battle of (1800) Marmont, Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de (1774–1852) Marx, Karl (1818–1883) Masaryk, Tómaš (1850–1937) Matabele Wars (1893–1894, 1896–1897) Mauritius Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico (1832–1867) Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–1872) McKinley, William (1843–1901) Mediterranean Agreements (1887) Mehmet Ali (1769–1848) Mehmet V, Sultan of Turkey (1844–1918) Meiji Restoration (1868–1912) Melville, Henry Dundas, First Viscount (1742–1811) List of Entries Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (1844– 1913) Mensheviks Mercantilism Metternich, Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Fürst von (1773–1859) Mexican-American War (1846–1848) Mexico Michelet, Jules (1798–1874) Mickiewicz, Adam Bernard (1798–1855) Militarism Military Conversations (1906–1914) Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873) Milner, Alfred, Viscount Milner (1854– 1925) Miranda, Francisco de (1750–1816) Missionaries Mission Civilisatrice Missouri Compromise (1820) Moltke, Helmuth von (1800–1891) Moltke, Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von (1848–1916) Monroe Doctrine (1823) Monroe, James (1758–1831) Montenegro Monterrey, Battle of (1846) Moreno, Mariano (1778–1811) Moroccan Crisis (1905) Morocco Morse, Samuel F. B. (1791–1872) Moscow Moscow, Retreat from (1812) Mudki, Battle of (1845) Mukden, Battle of (1905) Münchengrätz Convention (1833) Mutsuhito, Emperor of Japan (1852–1912) Nanjing, Treaty of (1842) Nansen, Fridtjof (1861–1930) Napoleonic Code Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815) Narodna Odbrana Navalism Navarino, Battle of (1827) Navigation Acts Nelson, Horatio (1758–1805) Nepal Nesselrode, Count Karl Robert (1780– 1862) Netherlands, Kingdom of the New Brunswick Newfoundland New Guinea New Zealand Ney, Michel (1769–1815) Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia (1796–1855) Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia (1868–1918) Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900) Nigeria Nihilism North German Confederation (1867–1871) Norway Nova Scotia Novibazar, Sanjak of October Manifesto (1905) Oil Omdurman, Battle of (1898) Open Door Opium War (1839–1842) Orange Free State Oregon Question Orientalism Ossetia O’Sullivan, John Louis (1813–1895) Ottoman Empire Oyama, Iwao (1842–1916) Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Lord (1784–1865) Panama Panama Canal Panama Scandal (1892–1893) Pandu Nadi, Battle of (1857) Pan-Slavism Paraguay Paris Commune (1871) Paris, Declaration of (1856) Paris, Treaty of (1815) Paris, Treaty of (1856) Paris, Treaty of (1898) Parnell, Charles Stewart (1846–1891) Paši´c, Nikola (1845–1926) Pax Britannica Peel, Sir Robert (1788–1850) Peninsular War (1808–1814) Perdicaris Affair (1904) Persia Peters, Carl (1856–1918) Philippines Piedmont-Sardinia, Kingdom of Piłsudski, Jozef (1867–1935) Pitt, William (1759–1806) Platt Amendment (1901) Pobedonostsev, Konstantin Petrovich (1827– 1907) Polar Imperialism xv xvi List of Entries Polish Rebellions Political Economy Port Arthur Port Arthur, Siege of (1904–1905) Porte, The Sublime Portsmouth, Treaty of (1905) Portuguese Empire (1415–1808) Pozzolo, Battle of (1800) Pressburg, Treaty of (1805) Pretoria, Convention of (1881) Primo de Rivera y Orbañeja, Miguel (1870– 1930) Progressivism Protectionism Protectorate Prussia Przheval’skii, Nikolai Mikhailovich (1839– 1888) Puerto Rico Pultusk, Battle of (1806) Punjab Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) Quadruple Alliance (1815) Quatre Bras, Battle of (1815) Québec Race Radetzky, Josef (1766–1858) Radicalism Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford (1781–1826) Railways Raison d’État R¯aj Ranke, Leopold von (1795–1886) Realpolitik Reich Reichsbank Reichstag Reinsurance Treaty (1887) Responsible Government Restoration War (1868–1869) Rhodes, Cecil (1853–1902) Ricardo, David (1772–1823) Riel Rebellions (1869–1870, 1885) Risk Fleet Theory Roberts, Frederick Sleigh, Earl Roberts of Kandahar and Pretoria (1832–1914) Roon, Albrecht von (1803–1879) Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt, Theodore (1858–1919) Root, Elihu (1845–1937) Rorke’s Drift, Battle of (1879) Rosas, Juan Manuel de (1793–1877) Rosebery, Archibald Philip Primrose, Earl of Rosebery (1847–1929) Royal Navy Royal Titles Act (1876) Rumania Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) Russell, Lord John (1792–1878) Russi...
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