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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The importance of energy and exergy analysis of different supercritical cycles is presented in Chapter 1. In view of this, literature on supercritical cycle/ultra supercritical cycle/advanced ultra supercritical cycles, and their improvements have been reviewed thoroughly and presented in this chapter. 2.1 ENERGY SCENARIO Lodhi[18] revealed that fossil fuels account for about 80%, renewable energy resources contribute 14% and nuclear 6% of world annual energy use. These numbers will soon change as the world’s population grows, energy demand rises, inexpensive oil and gas deplete, global warming effects continue to rise and urban pollution worsens the living conditions. The development of alternative energy sources and devices will emerge more rapidly to address the world’s energy and environmental situation. Thus, the establishment of a sustainable energy is one of the most pressing tasks of humanity. With the exhaustion of fossil resources, the energy economy will change to a chemical and an electrical base. Mahendra Lalwani and Mool Singh[119] revealed that, India consumes 7% of coal of the world where as China, U.S, Japan and rest of the world consumes 43%, 9%, 4% and 20%, respectively. 68% of world’s consumption of coal for the generation of electricity. Coal-fired
15 generation increases by an annual average of 2.3 percent, making coal the second fastest-growing source for electricity generation. World net electricity generation upto year 2007 and projected generation upto year 2035 by different fuels is shown in the Fig. 2.1. Figure 2.1. World net electricity generation by fuel (trillion kilowatthours) Source : International Energy Outlook 2010 Wikipedia [101] reveals that, the energy policy of India is largely defined by the country's burgeoning energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. About 70% of India's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels, with coal accounting for 40% of India's total energy consumption followed by crude oil and natural gas at 24% and 6% respectively. India is largely dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands; by 2030 India's dependence on energy imports is
16 expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. In 2009-10, the country imported 159.26 million tonnes of crude oil which amount to 80% of its domestic crude oil consumption where as 31% of the country's total imports are due to oil. Maximum efficiency of the power cycle together with a minimum investment costs and highest reliability are the overall design targets of power plant. According to International Energy Agency [135] the worldwide demand for power will increase significantly over the next decades, and the current power plant capacity will double by the year 2030. To save primary energy resources i.e. to reduce fuel consumption, and to reduce emissions, maximum power plant efficiency is a crucial parameter. Therefore, steam parameters will have to be maximized to an

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