HIST 2057 Test One - Reconstruction(1865-1877-Civil war was...

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Reconstruction (1865-1877)-Civil war was about if a state can leave the union (succession)-South – withdrew from the union to protect slavery-North- initially fought the war to restore the union, then ended slavery-Civil war referred to as a Harvest of DeathI.Post Civil War SituationA)South- devastated; most of war was fought in south; lost the war- surrendered; economy was destroyed (slaves did all the agriculture)- cash crop economy collapsed; before war one of the wealthiest places on planet; about 38% died in war; at least half died of disease; cost extremeamount of money; south (confederacy) each state made its own currency so after the war it was worth nothing; slave economy gone – billions of dollars; the south is a conquered nationB)North- wants to punish south; won the war; sent almost twice as many men into war as the south; 93 thousand ex-slaves served in army for the north (union); northern economy bloomed during war; north was industrialized; north is completely in control of federal government; while in control of government, north expands power of federal government; raised tariff on imported goods (Did a variety of things south was against)II.Post Civil War IssuesA)Political- How do you get these states back in the union? - How much power will federal government keep? - What’s going to happen to south’s leaders?B) Economic- What’s going to take the place of slavery?- How is the south going to recover?C) Racial- What is the status of these 4 million formally enslaved people? Citizens?- What “system of racial control”? (what white southerns were thinking?III. Presidential ReconstructionA)Requirements of South1)Lincoln’s plan-begins the process to solve problems during the war-Makes it easy. Says if 10% takes an oath to the union they take the states back. -The more states he can get during the war the easier it is on the union to end the war.-Congress passed 13thAmendment to end slavery-Freedmen’s Burreau- goes to the south and tries to help ex-slaves (learn to read, sets up schools, hospitals)-Lincoln is assainated before war ends which makes northerns more angry. Makes Andrew Johnson president.1
2)Johnson’s Plan-from east Tenn.-Not opposed to slavery-Was a democrat who was put on the republican party (Lincoln put him as vp; ticket to assure Lincoln’s presidency)-Unsuited for task of president. Doesn’t like compromise.-Made it easy for south to reconstruct because he wants to be re-elected as president and he’s a democrat (at the time, south was mainly democrats). The states are going to void the confederate debts. Denounce their session from the union. -Plan is self-reconstruction. Federal government ends slavery.-Allows for rapid re-election of south’s former leaders.-They had to go to Washington to get pardon from Johnson; he pardoned everyone. Johnson wants to establish political allies in the south.

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