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History Key Terms: Answers1.Pueblos- Descendants of the Anasazi—the Hopi and Zuni Indians—were called Pueblos (meaning “village” or “people”) Indians by the Spanish for the adobe villages with large apartment dwellings in which they lived.2.Acoma- Town located in New Mexico on a mesa west of the Rio Grande. When the Pueblos defended Acoma in 1598, the Spanish killed many people, took the survivors prisoner, and destroyed the town. Pueblos revolted against Spanish governor of New Mexico Juan de Onate.3.Hohokam- To the north of the Valley of Mexico, the first mainly agricultural societies developed in the deserts of the present-day American Southwest. The Hohokam cultivated Indian corn, cotton, squash, and beans in Arizona and northern Sonora, building irrigation canals to draw water from nearby rivers.4.Great League of Power and Peace- Many of the Iroquois lived in the Finger Lakes area of central New York State. They belonged to five tribes: the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, from east to west, who banded together in the Iroquois confederacy. The confederacy is also known as the Great League of Power and Peace.5.Treaty of Tordesillas- (1494) Treaty between Spain and Portugal that located the Line of Demarcation 370 leagues (about 1,000 miles) west of the Azores. It expanded the principle of “spheres of influence.”6.Francisco Coronado- In 1540, an army of 336 Spanish and about 1,000 Indians marched north under the command of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, with Fray Marcos as their guide. The explorers intended to conquer the cities of gold but were disappointed. Over the next year, Coronado’s troops explored; they found no gold or silver, but they left descriptions of a substantial part of what became the American Southwest.7.John Cabot- Italian navigator sent by King Henry VII of England in search of a northwest passage (from Europe to the East) in 1497. Cabot’s expedition reached Newfoundland and possibly Nova Scotia, but when he returned the following year, most of his ships were lost, and he died at sea. Although Cabot had failed to find the northwest passage, his efforts supported England’s later claim to land in North America.8.Sieur de La Salle- In 1682, Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, had explored the Mississippi River from New France to the gulf, naming the territory Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV. La Salle sailed to France, then returned to set up a colony. However, he miscalculated the location of the Mississippi, instead building Fort St. Louis in Texas, near Matagorda Bay. This colony quickly dissolved from disease, loss of ships, and attacks by Karankawa Indians; in 1687, La Salle’s own men murdered him.1
9.Hernan Cortez- (1485-1547) Spanish explorer who conquered the Aztecs initially in 1519, retreated when they rebelled, then defeated them again, aided by a smallpox epidemic, in 1521.