Sensitivity analysis of technical and economic parameters for natural gas management in enhanced oil

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.............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................ Sensitivity analysis of technical and economic parameters for natural gas management in enhanced oil recovery projects *Corresponding author: mohammadhosein. [email protected] Mojtaba Mirzaee 1 , Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi 2 * , Emin Ac ı kkalp 3 and Mohammad Rahimzadeh 4 1 Department of Chemistry, Institute of Payame Noor, Payame Noor University (PNU), PO Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran; 2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood 3619995161, Iran; 3 Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik SE University, Bilecik 11230, Turkey; 4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Golestan University, Gorgan 15759- 49138, Iran Abstract Since oil reservoirs have different properties, each reservoir performs differently during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. In some cases, water injection is the most effective method, while in others, gas injection or other methods will result in better performance. Most reservoir simulations assume that the amount of injection fluid is sufficient. However, in practice, the amount of available gas is enough to supply only a limited number of reservoirs. This study presents a comprehensive model which examines oil reservoirs in concert based on mathematical programming, and considers the competition between them. This model entails sensitive analysis of gas injection projects in order to determine effective factors (technical and economic parameters) on decision-making relating to gas injection projects. Results show that technical and economic parameters such as oil price, gas quality and gas price variation have a marked effect on economic results and may lead to favorable economic conditions. Variations were made in the model regarding changes in interest rate, number of wells and injection pressure, but these variations did not lead to unfavorable economic conditions; in other words, changes in these factors had no significant effect on stability. Keywords: enhanced oil recovery; comprehensive model; gas injection; reservoir simulation; eco- nomical sensitivity analysis Received 13 June 2018; revised 18 July 2018; editorial decision 22 August 2018; accepted 23 August 2018 1 INTRODUCTION Fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas are used in a variety of energy systems [ 1 4 ]. Due to the limited availability of these fuels, it is necessary to maximize recovery from each reservoir. Oil recovery makes it possible to achieve higher production from the resources available. Oil recovery operations have trad- itionally been subdivided into three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary [ 5 ]. Secondary recovery, the second stage of operations, is typically implemented after primary production has declined [ 6 ]. In conventional oil recovery projects, the decline in primary production to an uneconomic level has led to the development of various schemes to improve oil recovery efficiency before the abandonment of a reservoir. The term enhanced oil recovery (EOR) principally refers to the recovery of oil by any method beyond the primary stage of production. It is defined as the

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