Chapter 22 of The World: A Global History by Fernández-Armesto

Chapter 22 of The World: A Global History by Fernández-Armesto

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Chapter 22 The Exchange of Enlightenments: Eighteenth-Century Thought THE CHARACTER OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT Maupertuis: a French scientist Set out to find the shape of the Earth Came to conclusion that the Earth was squashed at the poles and bulging at the equator like Newton had predicted He went away from science like many did and focused on nature His thought b/t certainty and doubt, science and speculation, rationalism and religious revelation reproduced in miniature the history of European thought in the 18 th century THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN GLOBAL CONTEXT The Chinese Example Voltaire (French philosopher) saw China as a source of inspiration for his own art Voltaire hated organized religion and was drawn to Confucianism Voltaire saw the absolute power of the Chinese state as a force for good Montesquieu and Voltaire shared different opinions Montesquieu saw china as a despotic state whose principle is fear Europe’s strength was their liberty and Asias weakness was their slavery Quesnay, Voltaire’s colleague, felt that “enlightened despotism” would favor the people rather than elites… Confucianism restrained despotism Quesnay’s ideals were influential and he persuaded the heir to the French throne to imitate a Chinese imperial rite by plowing land in person as an example to agrarian improvers Enlightened despotism entered political vocabulary and many European rulers sought to embody it Chinese models seemed to be shaping European political thought Japan Japanese isolation left life in Japan unknown Kaempfer presented Japan in an ambiguous light as a land of heavy punishments and light taxation Thoughts of Japan differed as a land of despotism by Montesquieu and an embodiment of “the laws of nature in the laws of a state” by Voltaire The Islamic World Muslim Turkey and Persia influenced Western minds mostly of exotic imagery and in Turkey as a model of good and bad practice in government Turkey was often cited as a model for Europe to follow in hygiene, education, charitable institutions Turkey was a spot of despotism
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THE ENLIGHTENMENT’S EFFECTS IN ASIA The Enlightenment and China Chinese weren’t receptive to Western ideas When a map was shown to China, they didn’t believe it Jesuits were always at the side of the Chinese Emperor giving information on astronomy, geometry and physics The emperor threatened to expel all Jesuits from China unless they consented to design and manufacture artillery for him Western Science in Japan Japan recognized Western advancement in astronomy and science but chose to overindulge Since the Dutch were the only ones who had access to Japan, the technology brought with them were skeptical in the minds of the Japanese
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HST 198 taught by Professor Fahey during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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Chapter 22 of The World: A Global History by Fernández-Armesto

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