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Running head: LEININGER AND WATSON: PERSPECTIVES ON CARE 1 Leininger and Watson: Perspectives on Care Leah VanderZwaag Aspen University Professor AnnMarie Vang, RN, MSN December 19, 2019
LEININGER AND WATSON: PERSPECTIVES ON CARE 2 Leininger and Watson: Perspectives on Care Nursing is a caring science. The entire heart of nursing lies in providing for patients’ needs. Western nursing’ history is rich with research and development of best caring practices. The recipients of care are also richly diversifying. Immigrants and culture have seeped into the United States over the years, creating new populations needing care that could possibly not be cared for in the traditional way. Nurse theorists Madeleine Leininger and Jean Watson identified this gap in care and developed the theories of Cultural Care Diversity and Transpersonal Caring, respectively. Using the case studies of Mrs. Franklin-Jones and Claude Jean-Baptiste, their theories will be explored. The strengths and limitations of each theory will also be discussed, and evidence will reveal how important these theories are to the practice of nursing. Part One: Leininger’s Culture Care Model To summarize, Leininger’s theory requires nurses to shift thinking from medical conditions and treatments to understanding their patients’ culture as well as their caring values and patterns to deliver care (Smith & Parker, 2015). Her goal was to provide care in a manner that was congruent with patients’ culture. The theory presents similar concepts as what is now known as patient-centered care, one of the key points in the Institute of Medicine’s report (“IOM Future of Nursing Report”, 2010). Patient-centeredness is understood to be the belief that every individual is a unique human being with a unique set of cultural, social, religious, environmental, economic, and educational values. In order to provide effective, culturally competent nursing care, these values must all be factored in. Leininger was ahead of the game when she presented her theory in the early 1960s, as the term cultural competence did not gain traction until the 1990s (Saha, Beach, & Cooper, 2008). Now, thanks to multiple journals echoing her thoughts (including the one she piloted- Journal of Transcultural Nursing ), culture-based care is
LEININGER AND WATSON: PERSPECTIVES ON CARE 3 considered a requisite to nursing and seen as fundamental in achieving positive patient outcomes. Smith & Parker (2015) recorded several of Leininger’s observations that encouraged her to develop this theory: cultural stresses and conflicts exist when nurses attempt to care for non- Western cultures, multi-cultural clients experience frustration when healthcare personnel misunderstand their culture or values, un-personalized plans of care influence recovery, and intercultural conflicts among staff themselves create tension as well. Conflict between nurse and client can be detrimental for the patient, but conflict between the interdisciplinary team can also lead to uncoordinated and therefore ineffective care. Cultural awareness, sensitivity, and competence is necessary to deliver the best possible patient care.

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