L.VanderZwaag-N491-8.pptx - Nursing Theories of the 80s and...

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Nursing Theories of the 80s and 90s Leah VanderZwaag Aspen University Professor AnnMarie Vang, RN, MSN January 5, 2020 1
OBJECTIVES Summarize 8 Theories Apply Theories to Practice & Linked Outcomes Explore Nursing Satisfactions Overcome Barriers to Theory Implementation 2
Nightingale’s Environmental Theory Nightingale believed that disease is often due to “the want of fresh air, or light, or of warmth, or of quiet, or of cleanliness, or of punctuality and care in the administration of diet, or each or of all of these” These are her five environmental factors essential for healing because she believed “nature alone cures” Nursing’s Responsibility: alter environment (modifying 13 ‘canons’) to assist patient to recover because the environment affects biologic, physiologic, and psychologic functioning (Gonzalo, 2019; Smith & Parker, 2015, p. 44) 3
Applications to Current Practice & Linked Positive Patient Outcomes Personal Cleanliness – hand hygiene is considered the simplest, most effective way healthcare workers and patients can maintain/prevent spread of disease Fewer incidence of infection and cross-contamination Nutrition – Cares should not be provided while patient is eating because proper nutrition is linked to wound healing Shortened wound healing, shorter hospital stay Ventilation – Many hospitals and operating theaters employ HEPA filters to purify the air and prevent contamination of open wounds or to protect those in protective isolation Less risk of surgical infection, fewer complications in the immunocompromised (Gonzalo, 2019; Rui, Guangbei, & Jihong, 2008) 4
Benefits to Nursing Satisfacti on 5 (Gonzalo, 2014) Raised awareness of how the environment influences patient outcomes Adopting the mindset to aim interventions at preventing illness and altering environment to maintain/regain health is liberating and brings attention to the importance of educating the patient on ways to do this
BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING THEORY Finances – nursing education or continuing education does not always give direct focus to environmental hazards Nurses can pursue higher education and many facilities provide tuition reimbursement One of Nightingale’s theory’s assumptions is that health will result from proper environment, or letting nature heal. However, not all diseases are healable through environment manipulation. Environmental adaptation is still a powerful form of prevention medicine and should not be entirely overlooked by nurses when care-planning, but full recovery may not be possible 6 (Selanders, 2010)
Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory Central philosophy: All patients want to care for themselves and can recover quicker if they perform as much of their own self-care as possible Nursing’s responsibility: Determine what condition exists that necessitates nursing care and assist patient to assume responsibility for self-care Self-care: Actions that individuals can perform on their own behalf to maintain life, health, and well-being

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