Neuropsychology, Biological Psychology and the Brain

Neuropsychology, Biological Psychology and the Brain -...

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Neuropsychology, Biological Psychology and the Brain
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Early Views of the Brain Early Erroneous Views 3000 BC Egypt, Heart = seat of soul and location of memories 350 BC Greece, Aristotle. Brain cools the heart 150 AD Greece, Galen. Physiology consists of 4 humors, nerves carry fluid from and to brain 1600 AD France, Descartes’ “mind” located outside of brain Nerves from the eyes transport fluid to the brain ventricles. The mind controls the pineal which acts like a valve to control animal spirits which travel through nerves to inflate the muscles.
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Early Study of the Brain 1809 - Austria, Franz Josef Gall. Proposed that personality traits (e.g., generosity, secretiveness, destructiveness) are related to the dimensions of the head, which indicate the size of underlying parts of the brain. Proposed controversial idea named PHRENOLOGY (1.10)
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Famous “Psychological” Brain Research 1861 - France, Paul Broca . Expressive aphasics’ brains found to be damaged in the left frontal lobe. Conclusion: specific functions are localized to particular brain areas.
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What is Modern Neuroscience and Biological Psychology? Neuroscience = Study of the nervous system and its functions, including: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuroendrocrinology, neuropharmacology, and neuropathology Biopsychology = Study of how the brain and nervous system determine what we perceive, feel, think, say, and do; Incorporates more biological theories (above) into study of psychological phenomena
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Six Divisions of Modern Neuropsychology/Biopsychology Physiological Psychology – Focus on direct manipulation of nervous system in controlled laboratory settings (e.g., lesions, electrical stimulation, invasive recording); Animal Models Psychopharmacology = Focus on effect of drugs on nervous system Neuropsychology = Focus on behavioral deficits caused by brain damage (cortical); Animals, case studies, quasiexperimental approaches; Applied Psychophysiology = Focus on relation between physiology and behavior; Mind & body; Measurement of body responses (EEG, EKG, Muscle tension, Galvanic response) Cognitive Neuroscience = New field; Focus on neural bases of cognitive processes, such as learning and memory; Functional brain imaging; Comparative Psychology = Focus on evolutionary and genetic factors in behavior; Lab and naturalistic settings
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The Nervous System
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The Nervous System
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Peripheral Nervous System (Autonomic) Sympathetic system: prepares body for stress or action & triggers fight or flight reactions Parasympathetic system: returns body systems to normal, lowers heart & breathing rates, promotes digestion
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The Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS)—the brain & the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)—everything else. The PNS can be broken down into two sub- parts Skeletal, somatic nervous system—skeletal muscles for voluntary movement Autonomic nervous system—non-skeletal muscles found in organs, typically operate without voluntary control
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Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous Systems (Autonomic)
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