Intro to Psychology - Cognition and Language

Intro to Psychology - Cognition and Language What is Language Language = A form of communication whether spoken written or gestured/signed that is

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Cognition and Language
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What is Language? Language = A form of communication, whether spoken, written, or gestured/signed, that is based on a system of symbols and a method of combining those symbols to convey meaning Phonology A language’s sound system Morphology The rules for word formation
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Parts of Language Phoneme = the smallest distinctive sound unit Morpheme = smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) Grammar = System of rules in a language; enables communication and understanding Semantics = Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences; also, the study of meaning Syntax = the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
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Between 2-6, kids make HUGE advances in language Kids master their language in an active, rule-oriented way Vocabulary Development Age 2 200 words; Age 6 10,000 words Grammar Development Between 2-3, kids adopt the word order (grammar) of the adult speech they hear 2 and 3 year old children use simple subject-verb sentences. Gradually make changes, like “s” for plurals Overregularization – 3 ½ year-olds kids do know the rules, but over- apply them (my car “breaked”)
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Learning Conversation Skills Pragmatics is the practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others. The presence of older siblings provides a language environment conducive to acquiring language pragmatics. By age 4, kids can adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listeners
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Language Development Babbling Stage - Begins 3-4 months; Stage of speech development in which infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language Reduplicated babbling Endlessly repeating sounds and syllables such as bababa or dadada Variegated babbling (11 or 12 months) A form of babbling consisting of syllable strings with varying consonants and vowels (bigobadu); Start to acquire phonology of native language One-Word Stage - from about age 1 to 2; Stage in speech development in which child speaks mostly in single words Two-Word Stage - Begins about age 2; Stage in speech dev. in which child uses mostly 2-word statements Telegraphic Speech = early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
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Explaining Language Development Nature-Nurture Debate Skinner (Nurture; Operant conditioning) We learn language through association, imitation, reinforcement Chomsky (Nature; Inborn universal grammar) W e are born with the hardware and an operating system; experience writes the software NOTE: New language learning gets harder with age, suggesting it is a developmental phenomena…
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 0514-210 taught by Professor Hirsch during the Spring '08 term at RIT.

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Intro to Psychology - Cognition and Language What is Language Language = A form of communication whether spoken written or gestured/signed that is

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