Intro to Psychology - Learning and Memory

Intro to Psychology - Learning and Memory - Learning and...

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Learning and Memory Introduction to Psychology
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Learning Learning = (1) relatively permanent change in an (2) organism’s behavior due to (3) experience or practice. (1) More than just a reflex; Can be repeated again & again; Can be Forgotten; Might not be immediately observable (2) May be different/changed motor skill; “not-knowing” to “knowing” (3) Not caused by growth, maturation, trauma or illness; Practice or experience may be “one-trial” Associative Learning Learning that two events occur together; Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence two stimuli; a response and its consequences
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Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
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Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Basically, learn to associate two events that are paired together; We learn that they “go together.”
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Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions
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Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
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Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
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Classical Conditioning Acquisition - Initial stage in classical conditioning Phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, then neutral stimulus elicits a conditioned response Extinction - Diminishing of a CR; Occurs when UCS does not follow a CS Spontaneous Recovery - reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization - tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses Discrimination - in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
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Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
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Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
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Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner (1904- 1990) elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 0514-210 taught by Professor Hirsch during the Spring '08 term at RIT.

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Intro to Psychology - Learning and Memory - Learning and...

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