intro to psych notes 2

intro to psych notes 2 - Introduction to Psychology Test 2...

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Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Notes September 26, 2007 Learning Classical conditioning Instrumental Conditioning Behaviorism Hull, Watson, Skinner It is impossible to study behavior scientifically by subjective reports Psychologists must concentrate on objective analysis of observable behavior The abcs of behavioral learning Antecedents behavior consequences Distinguishing Learning from Performance Performance- what an organism actually does, (temporary state) can be influenced by environmental factors Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to experience with the environment Types of Reinforcers Positive reinforcement - Any stimulus whose presentation leads to the strengthening of responses that came before it Negative reinforcement - Any stimulus whose withdrawal increases the likelihood of a response that led to the termination of an aversive stimulus - Not punishment - Ex. Mice running straight down alley to turn off shock, vs turning in circles, getting there faster Punishment Any stimulus whose presentation leads to the reduction of the response that came before it Can Positive Reinforcers have negative effects? Powerful positive reinforces like alcohol and addictive drugs like heroin and cocaine can have devastating effects addicted individuals will neglect all other behaviors in order to obtain these drugs Yes Contiguity and Reinforcement The closeness in time between two events Reinforcement is most effective when it is delivered contiguous with a behavioral response A short delay between a response and reinforcement is effective Conditioned Reinforcers
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Reinforcers may satisfy basic biological needs ex. Sex warmth hunger, c But reinforcers are not always related to satisfied to basic biological needs Money, a smile, praise, grades, peer approval Conditioned Reinforcers- because they are associated with basic Reinforcers The Discovery of Classical Conditioning E.B. Twitmyer- a neurologist at the U of Penn was the actual discovery of classical conditioning Bell- dropping of hammer- flexing of knee Ivan Pavlov- using dogs for saliva Dog would salivate when the door opened Classical Conditioning Paradigm Unconditioned response- salvation Unconditioned stimulus- food Conditioned stimulus- bell Conditioned response- salivation Any neutral stimulus could be classically conditioned October 12, 2007 Key Factors Influencing Conditioning Frequency of pairings - The more times the CS is paired with the USC the better the learning Temporal Factors - Conditioned is the best when the cs is present immediately before the ucs if the cs id long before or after the UCS learning doesn’t occur Extinction - Conditioned can be unlearned very rapidly if the cs alone is presented many times without the UCS the response will extinguish An extinguished response is not forgotten - An extinguished response is not completely forgotten. Relearning
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