CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE - CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE Wendi member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties proclaimed himself

CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE - CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE Wendi...

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CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE Wendi – member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui Dynasty Yangdi – 2 nd member of Sui Dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618 CE Li Yuan – also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu Heavenly Khan – title taken by Tang rulers Zen – Chan variant of Buddhism (known as Zen in Japan and the west) stressing meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; goal was to know the ultimate wisdom and find release from a cycle of rebirth through introspective meditation Xuanzong – leading Chinese emperor of the Tang Dynasty who reigned from 713-755 CE though he encouraged overexpansion Yang Guifei – young woman belonging to harem of Tang prince; raised to status of royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relative into royal administration led to revolt Zhao Kuangyin – Founder of Song Dynasty; originally a general following fall Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent Zhu Xi – most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song Dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action Junks – Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula Flying Money – Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger or robbery; early form of currency “Golden Lily” – shape of a girl’s foot at the time of marriageable age attained through the practice of foot- binding (practice of mutilating a Chinese woman’s foot in order to make it smaller); presumably preferred by prospective husbands; also called “Lotus Pearl” Li Bo – most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings QUESTIONS – REBUILDING THE IMPERIAL EDIFICE IN THE SUI-TANG ERA 1. How did the Tang rulers keep the Turkic Khane under control? Played one Turkic people after another; Turkic leaders were forced to be vassals to Tang ruler; daughters of Turkic khans married into imperial family; sons sent to capital as hostages to guarantee good behavior of tribe, while the sons were also educated in Chinese ways 2. How did the Tang rulers use the scholar-gentry bureaucrats to offset the power of the aristocracy? Role in Chinese history was reduced as control over court life and administration for aristocrats declined and political power was shared between bureaucrats and aristocrats; scholar-gentry class staged most of the posts in the

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