ANTHRO EXAM CHEAT SHEET.docx - ANT 101H INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ARCHAEOLOGY What is Anthropology The study of all aspects of humankind A

ANTHRO EXAM CHEAT SHEET.docx - ANT 101H INTRODUCTION TO...

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ANT 101H INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY & ARCHAEOLOGY What is Anthropology? The study of all aspects of humankind A holistic comparative approach to humankind Universal diversity & commonalities through time & space Encompasses both CULTURE AND BIOLOGY Anthropos – “human” Logos – “study of” The BIOCULTURAL APPROACH CULTURE System of beliefs, traditions & customs that influences human behavior Human behavior that is learned and shared by members of a society Not biologically inherited Based on symbolic thinking Evolutionary perspective Adaption to an environment Scientific method FOUR subfields of Anthropology Sociocultural Holistic study of modern human behavior Participant observation Ethnographies Cross cultural studies(ethnologies) 2. Linguistics The study of human speech and language includes both the origins of language in general and analysis of specific languages (Lewis et al., 2013) There is an intricate link between language with culture 3. Archaeology The recovery & analysis of material remains left by human cultures, primarily of the past Public archeology (Cultural Resource Management) 4. Biological/Physical Anthropology Biological study of humans and their relatives within the framework of evolution and it’s relationship to culture Includes o humans as primates o human ancestry (Fossils) o Modern human variation 4 Subfields of Physical Anthropology
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1.Evolutionary Anthropology (palaeoanthropology) Study of human evolution, particularly through fossil remains 2. molecular anthropology Genetics is crucial to understanding evolutionary relationships Can examine the genetic relationships between human populations humans and their primate relatives Humans and their primate ancestors 3. Primatology Study of non-human primate behavior & biology Primate paleontology – study of primate fossil record 4. osteology Study of modern human skeletons. Bone biology & physiology Population relationships Paleodemography Paleonutrition Paleopathology Forensic Anthropology 5. Applied Anthropology Application of anthropological principles and research in other fields Practical use of knowledge & expertise of anthropology forensic anthropology Medical anthropology Scientific Racism How do Anthropologists study culture? Scientific Inquiry Scientific Method Define a relevant problem Establish a hypothesis Determine the empirical implications of the hypothesis Collect appropriate data through observation and/or experimentation Test the hypothesis by comparing these data with the expected implications Reject, revise , and/or retest hypothesis as necessary Deductive versus Inductive Reasoning History of the study of human variation Linneaus 1758 classificatory Separated humans into 5 categories
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o Americanus o Europaeus o Asiaticus o Afer o Monstrosus Count de Buffon “Varieties of the Human Species (1749) descriptive Rejected classifications Emphasized unity of species Behavioral & cultural biases Blumenbach (1752-1840)
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