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ANT 101H INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY & ARCHAEOLOGYWhat is Anthropology?The study of all aspects of humankindA holistic comparative approach to humankindUniversal diversity & commonalities through time & spaceEncompasses both CULTURE AND BIOLOGYAnthropos – “human”Logos – “study of”The BIOCULTURAL APPROACHCULTURESystem of beliefs, traditions & customs that influences human behaviorHuman behavior that is learned and shared by members of a society Not biologically inheritedBased on symbolic thinkingEvolutionary perspectiveAdaption to an environmentScientific methodFOUR subfields of AnthropologySocioculturalHolistic study of modern human behaviorParticipant observationEthnographiesCross cultural studies(ethnologies)2. LinguisticsThe study of human speech and language includes both the origins of language in general and analysis of specific languages (Lewis et al., 2013)There is an intricate link between language with culture3. ArchaeologyThe recovery & analysis of material remains left by human cultures, primarily of the pastPublic archeology (Cultural Resource Management)4. Biological/Physical AnthropologyBiological study of humans and their relatives within the framework of evolution and it’s relationship to culture Includes ohumans as primatesohuman ancestry (Fossils)oModern human variation4 Subfields of Physical Anthropology
1.Evolutionary Anthropology (palaeoanthropology) Study of human evolution, particularly through fossil remains2. molecular anthropologyGenetics is crucial to understanding evolutionary relationshipsCan examine the genetic relationships between human populations humans and their primate relativesHumans and their primate ancestors3. PrimatologyStudy of non-human primate behavior & biologyPrimate paleontology – study of primate fossil record 4. osteologyStudy of modern human skeletons.Bone biology & physiologyPopulation relationshipsPaleodemographyPaleonutritionPaleopathologyForensic Anthropology5. Applied AnthropologyApplication of anthropological principles and research in other fieldsPractical use of knowledge & expertise of anthropologyforensic anthropologyMedical anthropologyScientific RacismHow do Anthropologists study culture?•Scientific Inquiry•Scientific Method•Define a relevant problem•Establish a hypothesis•Determine the empirical implications of the hypothesis•Collect appropriate data through observation and/or experimentation•Test the hypothesis by comparing these data with the expected implications•Reject, revise , and/or retest hypothesis as necessary•Deductive versus Inductive ReasoningHistory of the study of human variationLinneaus 1758classificatorySeparated humans into 5 categories
oAmericanusoEuropaeusoAsiaticusoAferoMonstrosusCount de Buffon“Varieties of the Human Species (1749)descriptiveRejected classificationsEmphasized unity of speciesBehavioral & cultural biasesBlumenbach (1752-1840)