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Unformatted text preview: THIS IS A TRADITIONAL & OPTIONAL ASSIGNMENT… IT MUST BE PRINTED AND COMPLETED IN INK! Name: Class Period: Due Date: / / Guided Reading & Analysis: The Age of Jackson, 1824-1844 Chapter 10- Era of the Common Man pp 191-200 Reading Assignment: Ch. 10 AMSCO or other resource for Period 4 content Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis using higher level thinking skills with new knowledge gained from the reading. Basic Directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre-Read: Skim: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. Flip through the chapter and note the titles and subtitles. Look at images and their read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! Write Write your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. (image capturerd from motherjones.com) Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 4: Key Concept 4.1: The United States began to develop a modern democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and change their society and institutions to match them. Key Concept 4.2: Innovations in technology, agriculture, and commerce powerfully accelerated the American economy, precipitating profound changes to U.S. society and to national and regional identities. Key Concept 4.3: The U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade and expanding its national borders shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. Section 1 Connecting the Era of Good Feelings to the Age of Jackson Read the summary below. Highlight main ideas. The War of 1812 ended many of the problems that had plagued the United States since the Revolution. The nation’s independence was confirmed. The long war between Britain and France was over, and with it the need for America to maintain difficult neutrality. The war had convinced Democratic-Republicans that, for the nation’s security, they must protect American industry through tariffs — taxes on imported goods. The Democratic (or Jeffersonian) Republicans even chartered a new national bank to control the nation’s supply of money, something they had vigorously opposed only twenty years before. The Federalist Party, meanwhile, had discredited itself through its opposition to the war (Hartford Convention & Resolutions). As the Jeffersonian Republicans co-opted Federalist positions, the Federalist Party withered away and became essentially extinct outside of New England. James Monroe presided over the so-called “Era of Good Feelings,” but one-party rule masked serious differences of opinion. In the elections of 1816, the first after the war’s end, the Republicans took complete control of the federal government. James Monroe succeeded James Madison as President, and the Jeffersonian Republicans won 146 of 185 seats (78%) in the House of Representatives. By Monroe’s second term in office — which he won almost unanimously — the Federalists were reduced to only 4 seats in the U.S. Senate. Monroe’s administration became known as the “Era of Good Feelings” because there was so little opposition to him or to his policies. Election of 1824…But this one-party system masked real differences in opinion. In 1824, four candidates were nominated to succeed Monroe as President, all calling themselves Democratic-Republicans: the war hero Andrew Jackson, Speaker of the House Henry Clay, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams (pictured), and Secretary of the Treasury William Crawford. None of the candidates won a majority of the electoral vote, and so election was decided by the House of Representatives. Clay had great influence as Speaker of the House, and he threw his support to Adams — some said, in exchange for Adams’ promise to make Clay his Secretary of State. Jackson had won the most electoral votes and the greatest share of the popular vote, and his supporters, who had expected him to be confirmed by the House as President, called this partnership between Adams and Clay a “corrupt bargain.” During Adams’ administration, his supporters, who included many former Federalists, began to call themselves “National Republicans” to show their support for a strong national government that would promote commerce, support education, and fund roads and canals. But Adams was not particularly popular. In contrast, Jackson was extremely popular, having won national fame as hero of the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812 and later in wars against American Indians in Florida. He was also backed by a well-orchestrated political organization. Jackson’s followers formed the Democratic Party, claiming to be the true successors of Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party. Like their predecessors, the Democrats believed in small, decentralized government. Section 2 Guided Reading, pp 191-200 As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. Jacksonian Democracy pp 191-194 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them. The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens. Jacksonian Democracy… The Rise of a Democratic Society… men and women ate together, only one class of passenger on steamboats and railroad cars, hard to distinguish between classes of people, all wore similar clothing, equality was apparent Read the first paragraph on page 191. List the three competing viewpoints of Jackson and the emergence of popular politics. 1. 1. Jackson was a major molder of events Politics of the Common Man… 2. politics moved out of fine homes of rich planters and merchants, white males of lower and middle classes began t vote in large numbers, new state suffrage laws enabled more citizens to vote, changes in political parties and campaign methods, improved education, increases in newspaper circulation helped 2. a political opportunist exploiting the democratic ferment of the times 3. Jackson was merely a symbol of the era 3. Universal Male Suffrage… western states recently admitted (Indiana, Illinois, Missouri) wrote their constitutions so all white males could vote and hold office, no religious or property qualifications, trend continued east Party Nominating Conventions… people previously had no opportunity to participate in nominating, caucuses replaced, would gather in large meeting hall to nominate candidates, method was more open to popular participation In what ways did Jacksonian Democracy differ from the original republicanism of the Framer’s generation? 1. Popular Election of the President… 1. party nominating conventions states had adopted a new method of allowing voters to choose a state's slate of presidential electors 2. no religious or property 2. requirements to vote 3. the popular election of presidential electors and, in effect, the president Two-Party System… popular election of presidential electors had important consequences for two-party system, campaigns had to be conducted on a national scale, large political parties needed 3. Rise of Third Parties… only two major parties could win, other parties emerged, Anti-Masonic and Workingmen's party More Elected Offices… much larger number of state and local officials were elected to office, instead of being appointed as in the past, gave the voters more voice Popular Campaigning… candidates directed their campaigns to the interests of the common people, politics became popular activity, parades, free good and drink, negative side to new techniques, candidates would result to personal attacks and downplay the issues Spoils System and Rotation of Officeholders… winning government jobs became lifeblood of party organizations, Jackson believed in appointing people according to their activity campaigning for Democrats, any previous office holder was fired and replaced, critics believed it promoted government corruption To what extent were these differences signs of improving American democracy? These were signs of an improving American Democracy One piece of evidence supporting your answer: more people could vote, voting went from 350,000 to 2.4 million One piece of evidence supporting the opposing view: women and minorities still couldn't vote, so it wasn't a complete democracy. Are you using ink? Remember… no pencil! 2. Jackson Versus Adams, pp193-194 Key Concepts & Main Ideas The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens. Notes Analysis Jackson Versus Adams… Before answering the questions for this section, turn to page 199- 200 and read “Historical Perspectives.” To what extent was the election of 1828 a “revolution?” Traditional View… The Election of 1824… Opposing Whig View… viewed Jackson as a despot whose appeal to the "ineducated" masses and "corrupt" spoils system threatened the republic henry clay, Andrew Jackson, john Quincy Adams, William Crawford Adams wins because Jackson's win Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.’s view… Jacksonian democracy relied as much on the support of eastern urban workers as on western farmers in the popular votes didn't grant him a majority in the electoral college and the HOR voted for Adams Contemporary historians… show that increased voter participation was evident in local elections years before 1828 and didn't reach a peak until 1840 President John Quincy Adams… asked for money for internal improvements and passed a tariff law that only benefitted northern manufacturers (pissed off the southerners) Jackson's election began the era of the common man, when the masses of newly enfranchised voters drove out the ruling class and elected their own. Recent historians… see Jackson's popularity in the 1830s as a reaction of subsistence farmers and urban workers against the threatening forces of economic change Which election was a more significant “revolution” in American politics, 1800 or 1828? Explain your view. The election of 1800 was a more significant revolution was a more significant revolution because it was the first of its kind. The Revolution of 1828… nasty campaigns of Adams vs Jackson, Jackson wins the presidency more from his reputation than political standings Defend your answer with three pieces of specific historical evidence. 1. 1. the passing of power was done without violence, which was a rare 2. event for the times 2. Democratic Republicans took control of both the house and the senate 3. 3. Since this was the first passing of power, it set the precedence for future elections, including the election of 1824 3. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson, pp 195-197 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson… the "common man"--"self-made man" opposed increasing federal spending and national debt and read the constitution narrowly leading to the veto of many bills. the cabinet had less influence than previous presidents. favored state's rights. opposed the antislavery movement Presidential Power… Support or refute Andrew Jackson’s claim that Indian removal was done in the best interest of American Indians. Indian removal was not done in the best interest of American Indians One piece of evidence supporting your answer: Many died on their was to the small lands they'd been allotted, and their homes were taken. Peggy Eaton Affair… wife of Jackson's secretary of war, target of gossip by other cabinet wives. Jackson tried to force the ladies to accept peggy, but they wouldn't and most of the cabinet members resigned. RESULT: Martin Van Buren becomes VP in Jackson's second term One piece of evidence supporting the opposing view: The Bureau of Indian Affairs was created to assist them How did the death of Rachel Jackson impact the President? It made Jackson even more bitter towards his rivals, since he believed they caused her death. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion included restrictive antiIndian policies. Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution. The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution. Indian Removal Act (1830)… forced resettlement of thousands of indians west of the mississippi (took 5 years) Analysis What impact did John Marshall and the Supreme Court have on Indian policy? Explain. The Supreme Court didn't have much of an impact since Jackson chose whether he wanted to enforce their decisions. Trial of Tears… The tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their home land to Indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of Cherokees died. Nullification Who had greater power in this era, the Supreme Court or the Executive Branch? Explain. The executive branch, because without the support of the president, the supreme court can't enforce its rulings. Crisis… 1828… 1828 South Carolina legislature declared Tariff of Abominations to be unconstitutional, affirmed theory of Calhoun, Jackson declared the Union needed to be saved, when South Carolina had secession convention, Jackson prepared military action, declared nullification treason, Jackson offered to lower the tariff and crisis was over 1830… 1832… What other accomplishment in compromise did Henry Clay have (in addition to the Compromise Tariff of 1833) during this Antebellum Era? he persuaded a majority in congress to pass a bank recharter bill. 1833… Compromise Tariff passed after collaboration between John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay, ending Nullification Crisis Have you figured it out yet? ☺….. The first major problem Jackson faced as President → Nullification Crisis Before you continue, make sure you thoroughly understand this conflict. To what extent did each of the following serve as precedents for the Ordinance of Nullification? Prior Events Articles of Confederati on Whiske y Rebelli on Virginia and Kentucky Resolutio ns Hartford Resolutio ns Definition/Description of Event/Document Extent to which it served as precedent to Ordinance of Nullification large The Articles of Confederation served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence from Great Britain. The Whiskey Rebellion was a 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania in protest of a whiskey tax enacted by the federal government.. Opposition to the whiskey tax and the rebellion itself built support for the Republicans, who overtook Washington's Federalist Party for power in 1802. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings that adopted resolutions that included proposed Constitutional amendments, summarized as follows: Abolish the 3/5 Compromise (Reduce Southern power in Congress.) Require 2/3 of the Senate to declare war. (One third of the states could veto a war proposal.) extent, because… (list two reasons) (large or small) 1. 2. the basis of their arguments for things being unconstitutional . states rights small extent, because… (list two reasons) (large or small) it was also a protest against something the federal government did but 1. . they didn’t succeed. 2. large extent, because… (list two reasons) (large or small) 1. something was unconstitutional 2. a states rights matter large 1. 2. extent, because… (list two reasons) (large or small) issue caused by the federal government. had a secret meeting also The second major problem Jackson faced as President → the Second BUS BACKGROUND: Today, the federal government has such power and influence over the nation’s economy that it may be difficult to understand why people were so strongly opposed to a national bank. The first Bank of the United States had been chartered in 1791, under the leadership of Alexander Hamilton. It was a private corporation, only partially owned by the government, and its profits went to stockholders. But the bank had three important and unique privileges. First, the federal government deposited all tax receipts into the bank. Second, the bank made short-term loans to the government. Third, and most important, the national bank refused to accept notes from other banks in individual states unless those banks had enough gold and silver to back up their paper. At that time, all official U.S. money was in coin, but banks issued “bank notes” — pieces of paper with a promise to pay a stated value in gold or silver when they were redeemed or brought back to the bank. These notes could be traded for goods and services, and so they functioned as paper money. If banks issued too much paper money, though, inflation would result — prices would rise, and the dollar would be worth less — and if the banks did not have the assets to back up their promises, people would be left holding worthless paper, the financial system could crash. To Republicans, though, the bank seemed elitist. Private stockholders earned interest on government deposits. And in the South and West, money had always been in short supply (remember the protests of the Regulators). Southerners and westerners believed that the development of their regions depended on access to money and credit — which the national bank did not give them. The bank’s charter expired in 1811, and the Republican Congress did not renew it. But the result was just what Hamilton had feared — inflation and confusion over the value of bank notes. To provide for a sound national currency, Congress chartered a second bank of the United States in 1816, again for twenty years. And again, it was resented as elitist — by state and local bankers who resented its privileges, and by people in new states and territories who needed access to money and credit. When Congress voted to renew the bank’s charter early, President Jackson vetoed the bill with a speech railing against monopoly and privilege. Until that time, presidents had rarely used the veto to override the wishes of Congress. But his veto was popular, and after his re-election in 1832, he issued an executive order ending the deposit of government funds into the Bank of...
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